SPECIAL TOPICS: High Performance Computing

GUEST EDITORIAL

16(1) High performance computing: a brief review and prospects 
 Depei Qian 
16(1) High performance computing: a brief review and prospects 
 Depei Qian 

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT

17(1) TH Express-2 reaches new heights for supercomputer interconnects 
 Zhimin Tang 
17(1) TH Express-2 reaches new heights for supercomputer interconnects 
 Zhimin Tang 

PERSPECTIVES

19(1) Extreme-scale computer architecture 
 Josep Torrellas 
23(1) Low-power technologies in high-performance computer: trends and perspectives 
 Xianghui Xie 
26(1) Algorithm development for extreme-scale computing 
 Jiachang Sun, Chao Yang and Xiao-Chuan Cai 
28(1) High-performance programming frameworks for numerical simulation 
 Zeyao Mo 
30(1) A new metric for ranking high-performance computing systems 
 Jack Dongarra, Michael A. Heroux and Piotr Luszczek 
19(1) Extreme-scale computer architecture 
 Josep Torrellas 
23(1) Low-power technologies in high-performance computer: trends and perspectives 
 Xianghui Xie 
26(1) Algorithm development for extreme-scale computing 
 Jiachang Sun, Chao Yang and Xiao-Chuan Cai 
28(1) High-performance programming frameworks for numerical simulation 
 Zeyao Mo 
30(1) A new metric for ranking high-performance computing systems 
 Jack Dongarra, Michael A. Heroux and Piotr Luszczek 

REVIEWS

36(1) High-performance computing environment: a review of twenty years of experiments in China 
 Zhiwei Xu, Xuebin Chi and Nong Xiao 
49(1) Applying high-performance computing in drug discovery and molecular simulation 
 Tingting Liu, Dong Lu, Hao Zhang,Mingyue Zheng, Huaiyu Yang, Yechun Xu, Cheng Luo,Weiliang Zhu, Kunqian Yu and Hualiang Jiang 
36(1) High-performance computing environment: a review of twenty years of experiments in China 
 Zhiwei Xu, Xuebin Chi and Nong Xiao 
49(1) Applying high-performance computing in drug discovery and molecular simulation 
 Tingting Liu, Dong Lu, Hao Zhang,Mingyue Zheng, Huaiyu Yang, Yechun Xu, Cheng Luo,Weiliang Zhu, Kunqian Yu and Hualiang Jiang 

INTERVIEW

64(1) The demands and challenges of exascale computing: an interview with Zuoning Chen 
 Wenguang Chen 
64(1) The demands and challenges of exascale computing: an interview with Zuoning Chen 
 Wenguang Chen 

Cold Atoms

GUEST EDITORIAL

165(2) Preface: special topic on cold atoms 
 Jun Ye 
165(2) Preface: special topic on cold atoms 
 Jun Ye 

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT

166(2) Synthetic gauge fields for ultracold atoms 
 Ana Maria Rey 
166(2) Synthetic gauge fields for ultracold atoms 
 Ana Maria Rey 

PERSPECTIVES

168(2) Ultracold atomic gases going strong 
 Cheng Chin 
170(2) Quantum-gas microscopes: a new tool for cold-atom quantum simulators 
 Stefan Kuhr 
172(2) Radiokrypton dating coming of age 
 Zheng-Tian Lu 
168(2) Ultracold atomic gases going strong 
 Cheng Chin 
170(2) Quantum-gas microscopes: a new tool for cold-atom quantum simulators 
 Stefan Kuhr 
172(2) Radiokrypton dating coming of age 
 Zheng-Tian Lu 

REVIEWS

174(2) Heteronuclear Efimov resonances in ultracold quantum gases 
 Juris Ulmanis, Stephan Häfner, Eva D. Kuhnle and Matthias Weidemüller 
189(2) Precision measurement and frequencymetrology with ultracold atoms 
 Xibo Zhang and Jun Ye 
174(2) Heteronuclear Efimov resonances in ultracold quantum gases 
 Juris Ulmanis, Stephan Häfner, Eva D. Kuhnle and Matthias Weidemüller 
189(2) Precision measurement and frequencymetrology with ultracold atoms 
 Xibo Zhang and Jun Ye 

INTERVIEW

201(2) How cold atoms got hot: an interview with William Phillips 
 Philip Ball 
201(2) How cold atoms got hot: an interview with William Phillips 
 Philip Ball 

Rice Breeding

GUEST EDITORIAL

275(3) Rice breeding: never off the table 
 Jiayang Li 
275(3) Rice breeding: never off the table 
 Jiayang Li 

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT

276(3) Molecular signature of chilling adaptation in rice 
 Xin-Min Li and Hong-Xuan Lin 
276(3) Molecular signature of chilling adaptation in rice 
 Xin-Min Li and Hong-Xuan Lin 

PERSPECTIVES

278(3) How can rice genetics benefit from rice-domestication study? 
 Erwang Chen, Xuehui Huang and Bin Han 
280(3) Starch metabolism and grain chalkiness under high temperature stress 
 Pei-Ching Lo, Li Hu, Hidemi Kitano and Makoto Matsuoka 
278(3) How can rice genetics benefit from rice-domestication study? 
 Erwang Chen, Xuehui Huang and Bin Han 
280(3) Starch metabolism and grain chalkiness under high temperature stress 
 Pei-Ching Lo, Li Hu, Hidemi Kitano and Makoto Matsuoka 

REVIEWS

283(3) Breeding high-yield superior quality hybrid super rice by rational design 
 Qian Qian, Longbiao Guo, Steven M. Smith and Jiayang Li 
295(3) Plant innate immunity in rice: a defense against pathogen infection 
 Wende Liu and Guo-Liang Wang 
309(3) Epigenetic regulation and epigenomic landscape in rice 
 Xian Deng, Xianwei Song, Liya Wei, Chunyan Liu and Xiaofeng Cao 
283(3) Breeding high-yield superior quality hybrid super rice by rational design 
 Qian Qian, Longbiao Guo, Steven M. Smith and Jiayang Li 
295(3) Plant innate immunity in rice: a defense against pathogen infection 
 Wende Liu and Guo-Liang Wang 
309(3) Epigenetic regulation and epigenomic landscape in rice 
 Xian Deng, Xianwei Song, Liya Wei, Chunyan Liu and Xiaofeng Cao 

INTERVIEW

328(3) Research, rethink and revolutionize rice breeding: an interviewwithQifa Zhang 
 Zisong Ma 
328(3) Research, rethink and revolutionize rice breeding: an interviewwithQifa Zhang 
 Zisong Ma 

Environmental Pollution and Health Risk

GUEST EDITORIAL

409(4) Preface to the special topic on environmental pollution and health risk 
 Guibin Jiang 
409(4) Preface to the special topic on environmental pollution and health risk 
 Guibin Jiang 

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS

410(4) Natural stable isotopes: new tracers in environmental health studies 
 Qian Liu, Holger Hintelmann and Guibin Jiang 
411(4) DNA N6-methyladenine modification: a new role for epigenetic silencing in mammalian 
 Zhe Li and Hailin Wang 
410(4) Natural stable isotopes: new tracers in environmental health studies 
 Qian Liu, Holger Hintelmann and Guibin Jiang 
411(4) DNA N6-methyladenine modification: a new role for epigenetic silencing in mammalian 
 Zhe Li and Hailin Wang 

PERSPECTIVES

412(4) Haze and health 
 Liang-Hong Guo 
414(4) Nano products in daily life: to know what we do not know 
 Yongyi Wei and Bing Yan 
412(4) Haze and health 
 Liang-Hong Guo 
414(4) Nano products in daily life: to know what we do not know 
 Yongyi Wei and Bing Yan 

REVIEWS

416(4) Pulmonary diseases induced by ambient ultrafine and engineered nanoparticles in twenty-first century 
 Tian Xia, Yifang Zhu, Lina Mu, Zuo-Feng Zhang and Sijin Liu 
430(4) Stem cell toxicology: a powerful tool to assess pollution effects on human health 
 Xinglei Yao, Nuoya Yin and Francesco Faiola 
451(4) Arsenobetaine: the ongoing mystery 
 Aleksandra Popowich, Qi Zhang and X. Chris Le 
416(4) Pulmonary diseases induced by ambient ultrafine and engineered nanoparticles in twenty-first century 
 Tian Xia, Yifang Zhu, Lina Mu, Zuo-Feng Zhang and Sijin Liu 
430(4) Stem cell toxicology: a powerful tool to assess pollution effects on human health 
 Xinglei Yao, Nuoya Yin and Francesco Faiola 
451(4) Arsenobetaine: the ongoing mystery 
 Aleksandra Popowich, Qi Zhang and X. Chris Le 

INTERVIEW

459(4) Global environmental health: an interview with Sally Perreault Darney 
 Li Xu and Bin Zhao 
459(4) Global environmental health: an interview with Sally Perreault Darney 
 Li Xu and Bin Zhao 

EDITORIALS

1(1) China's ‘bittersweet’ Nobel Prize dream 
 Zhonghe Zhou 
153(2) Paris Agreement: a roadmap to tackle climate and environment challenges 
 Lixin Wu 
263(3) Science without boundary: interdisciplinary research 
 Gaoqing Max Lu 
393(4) Scientific leap-forward in the critical period: the thirteenth Five-Year Plan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) 
 Mu-ming Poo 
1(1) China's ‘bittersweet’ Nobel Prize dream 
 Zhonghe Zhou 
153(2) Paris Agreement: a roadmap to tackle climate and environment challenges 
 Lixin Wu 
263(3) Science without boundary: interdisciplinary research 
 Gaoqing Max Lu 
393(4) Scientific leap-forward in the critical period: the thirteenth Five-Year Plan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) 
 Mu-ming Poo 

FORUMS

148(1) Nanotechnology development in China: challenges and opportunities 
 Jane Qiu 
257(2) Stem-cell research and regenerative medicine in China 
 Jane Qiu 
387(3) Building national laboratories to meet China's development challenges 
 Jane Qiu 
538(4) Research and development of artificial intelligence in China 
 Jane Qiu 
148(1) Nanotechnology development in China: challenges and opportunities 
 Jane Qiu 
257(2) Stem-cell research and regenerative medicine in China 
 Jane Qiu 
387(3) Building national laboratories to meet China's development challenges 
 Jane Qiu 
538(4) Research and development of artificial intelligence in China 
 Jane Qiu 

INTERVIEWS

144(1) Dahe Qin: time is limited to curb global warming 
 Ling Wang and Zhonghe Zhou 
252(2) Yifang Wang: high energy physics in China 
 Ling Wang and Mu-ming Poo 
382(3) JianguoHou: major reforms in China's S&T funding mechanisms 
 Mu-ming Poo and Ling Wang 
534(4) Peidong Yang: cultivating ground-breaking research in China 
 Ling Wang and Mu-ming Poo 
144(1) Dahe Qin: time is limited to curb global warming 
 Ling Wang and Zhonghe Zhou 
252(2) Yifang Wang: high energy physics in China 
 Ling Wang and Mu-ming Poo 
382(3) JianguoHou: major reforms in China's S&T funding mechanisms 
 Mu-ming Poo and Ling Wang 
534(4) Peidong Yang: cultivating ground-breaking research in China 
 Ling Wang and Mu-ming Poo 

LETTERS & COMMENTARIES

7(1) Echoing a Hippocratic Oath 
 Xiren Cao 
7(1) Organizing better attendee-friendly conferences 
 Yang Gan 
7(1) Echoing a Hippocratic Oath 
 Xiren Cao 
7(1) Organizing better attendee-friendly conferences 
 Yang Gan 

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS

Chemistry

2(1) A breakthrough of artificial photosynthesis 
 Tingyun Kuang 
264(3) Finding away out: removing the restrictions associated with the traditional FTS mechanism and ASF distribution 
 Mingyuan He 
2(1) A breakthrough of artificial photosynthesis 
 Tingyun Kuang 
264(3) Finding away out: removing the restrictions associated with the traditional FTS mechanism and ASF distribution 
 Mingyuan He 

Computer science

265(3) Sunway Taihu-Light supercomputer makes its appearance 
 Jack Dongarra 
265(3) Sunway Taihu-Light supercomputer makes its appearance 
 Jack Dongarra 

Geosciences

155(2) Quantifying drivers of the sediment load reduction in the Yellow River Basin 
 Chansheng He 
397(4) Bidirectional coupling between the Earth and human systems is essential for modeling sustainability 
 Bojie Fu and Yan Li 
155(2) Quantifying drivers of the sediment load reduction in the Yellow River Basin 
 Chansheng He 
397(4) Bidirectional coupling between the Earth and human systems is essential for modeling sustainability 
 Bojie Fu and Yan Li 

Materials science

3(1) Unprecedented self-assembly of precise molecular particles 
 Lei Zhu and Ming Jiang 
3(1) Unprecedented self-assembly of precise molecular particles 
 Lei Zhu and Ming Jiang 

Physics

154(2) First measurement of strong interaction between antiprotons 
 Huan-Qiao Zhang 
394(4) Viewpoint on optical frequency divider with 10−21 precision 
 Li You 
395(4) The discovery of a quantum Griffiths singularity in superconducting films 
 Nan-LinWang 
 Editors’ selection of papers from China's academic journals [5(1), 157(2), 267(3), 399(4)] 
154(2) First measurement of strong interaction between antiprotons 
 Huan-Qiao Zhang 
394(4) Viewpoint on optical frequency divider with 10−21 precision 
 Li You 
395(4) The discovery of a quantum Griffiths singularity in superconducting films 
 Nan-LinWang 
 Editors’ selection of papers from China's academic journals [5(1), 157(2), 267(3), 399(4)] 

PERSPECTIVES

Chemistry

269(3) Organic thermoelectrics for green energy 
 Chong-an Di,Wei Xu and Daoben Zhu 
269(3) Organic thermoelectrics for green energy 
 Chong-an Di,Wei Xu and Daoben Zhu 

Ecology

8(1) When will China achieve its carbon emission peak? 
 Tianli Zheng, Jiangling Zhu, Shaopeng Wang and Jingyun Fang 
8(1) When will China achieve its carbon emission peak? 
 Tianli Zheng, Jiangling Zhu, Shaopeng Wang and Jingyun Fang 

Geosciences

12(1) Is lunarmagma ocean (LMO) gone with the wind? 
 Yaoling Niu and Michael J. O'Hara 
162(2) Developing policy for the Yellow River sediment sustainable control 
 ShuaiWang, Bojie Fu and Wei Liang 
271(3) Asia dust production ramped up since latest Oligocene driven by Tibetan Plateau uplift 
 Hongbo Zheng 
401(4) Photochemical smog in China: scientific challenges and implications for air-quality policies 
 Mattias Hallquist, John Munthe, Min Hu, Tao Wang, Chak K Chan, Jian Gao, Johan Boman, Song Guo, Åsa M Hallquist, Johan Mellqvist, Jana Moldanova, Ravi K Pathak, Jan BC Pettersson, Håkan Pleijel, David Simpson and Marie Thynell 
12(1) Is lunarmagma ocean (LMO) gone with the wind? 
 Yaoling Niu and Michael J. O'Hara 
162(2) Developing policy for the Yellow River sediment sustainable control 
 ShuaiWang, Bojie Fu and Wei Liang 
271(3) Asia dust production ramped up since latest Oligocene driven by Tibetan Plateau uplift 
 Hongbo Zheng 
401(4) Photochemical smog in China: scientific challenges and implications for air-quality policies 
 Mattias Hallquist, John Munthe, Min Hu, Tao Wang, Chak K Chan, Jian Gao, Johan Boman, Song Guo, Åsa M Hallquist, Johan Mellqvist, Jana Moldanova, Ravi K Pathak, Jan BC Pettersson, Håkan Pleijel, David Simpson and Marie Thynell 

Immunology

160(2) Advances in innate immune signaling: new activators and regulators 
 Juan Liu and Xuetao Cao 
160(2) Advances in innate immune signaling: new activators and regulators 
 Juan Liu and Xuetao Cao 

Physics

159(2) Thequest for an accurate measurement of cosmic shear 
 Jun Zhang 
159(2) Thequest for an accurate measurement of cosmic shear 
 Jun Zhang 

Science policy

404(4) A case study of aworld-class research project accomplished in China: discovery of the quantum anomalous Hall effect 
 Junling Huang, Dongbo Shi, Lan Xue and Venkatesh Narayanamurti 
404(4) A case study of aworld-class research project accomplished in China: discovery of the quantum anomalous Hall effect 
 Junling Huang, Dongbo Shi, Lan Xue and Venkatesh Narayanamurti 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Physics

463(4) Optical frequency divider with division uncertainty at the 10−21 level 
 Yuan Yao, Yanyi Jiang, Hongfu Yu, Zhiyi Bi and Longsheng Ma 
463(4) Optical frequency divider with division uncertainty at the 10−21 level 
 Yuan Yao, Yanyi Jiang, Hongfu Yu, Zhiyi Bi and Longsheng Ma 

REVIEWS

Biology & biochemistry

331(3) Three-dimensional bioprinting speeds up smart regenerative medicine 
 Qi Gu, He Zhu, Jing Li, Xia Li, Jie Hao, Gordon G. Wallace and Qi Zhou 
331(3) Three-dimensional bioprinting speeds up smart regenerative medicine 
 Qi Gu, He Zhu, Jing Li, Xia Li, Jie Hao, Gordon G. Wallace and Qi Zhou 

Chemistry

107(1) Chemical synthesis of proteins using hydrazide intermediates 
 Yi-Chao Huang, Ge-Min Fang and Lei Liu 
204(2) Big picture of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics 
 Wenjian Liu 
345(3) Advancements in mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomics and glycomics 
 Haojie Lu, Ying Zhang and Pengyuan Yang 
520(4) Rational design and synthesis of noble-metal nanoframes for catalytic and photonic applications 
 Xue Wang, Aleksey Ruditskiy and Younan Xia 
107(1) Chemical synthesis of proteins using hydrazide intermediates 
 Yi-Chao Huang, Ge-Min Fang and Lei Liu 
204(2) Big picture of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics 
 Wenjian Liu 
345(3) Advancements in mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomics and glycomics 
 Haojie Lu, Ying Zhang and Pengyuan Yang 
520(4) Rational design and synthesis of noble-metal nanoframes for catalytic and photonic applications 
 Xue Wang, Aleksey Ruditskiy and Younan Xia 

Clinical medicine

117(1) Cancer prevention and control: alarming challenges in China 
 Ann M. Bode, Zigang Dong and Hongyang Wang 
117(1) Cancer prevention and control: alarming challenges in China 
 Ann M. Bode, Zigang Dong and Hongyang Wang 

Geosciences

495(4) Continental versus oceanic subduction zones 
 Yong-Fei Zheng and Yi-Xiang Chen 
495(4) Continental versus oceanic subduction zones 
 Yong-Fei Zheng and Yi-Xiang Chen 

Information science

240(2) Modeling the causal regulatory network by integrating chromatin accessibility and transcriptome data 
 Yong Wang, Rui Jiang and Wing Hung Wong 
240(2) Modeling the causal regulatory network by integrating chromatin accessibility and transcriptome data 
 Yong Wang, Rui Jiang and Wing Hung Wong 

Materials science

128(1) Mechanics and thermalmanagement of stretchable inorganic electronics 
 Jizhou Song, Xue Feng and Yonggang Huang 
222(2) Development of polymer–fullerene solar cells 
 Fengling Zhang, Olle Ingan¨as, Yinhua Zhou and Koen Vandewal 
365(3) First-principles design of spintronics materials 
 Xingxing Li and Jinlong Yang 
128(1) Mechanics and thermalmanagement of stretchable inorganic electronics 
 Jizhou Song, Xue Feng and Yonggang Huang 
222(2) Development of polymer–fullerene solar cells 
 Fengling Zhang, Olle Ingan¨as, Yinhua Zhou and Koen Vandewal 
365(3) First-principles design of spintronics materials 
 Xingxing Li and Jinlong Yang 

Multidisciplinary

470(4) Modeling sustainability: population, inequality, consumption, and bidirectional coupling of the Earth and Human Systems 
 Safa Motesharrei, Jorge Rivas, Eugenia Kalnay, Ghassem R. Asrar, Antonio J. Busalacchi, Robert F. Cahalan, Mark A. Cane, Rita R. Colwell, Kuishuang Feng, Rachel S. Franklin, Klaus Hubacek, FernandoMiralles-Wilhelm, TakemasaMiyoshi, Matthias Ruth, Roald Sagdeev, Adel Shirmohammadi, Jagadish Shukla, Jelena Srebric, VictorM. Yakovenko and Ning Zeng 
470(4) Modeling sustainability: population, inequality, consumption, and bidirectional coupling of the Earth and Human Systems 
 Safa Motesharrei, Jorge Rivas, Eugenia Kalnay, Ghassem R. Asrar, Antonio J. Busalacchi, Robert F. Cahalan, Mark A. Cane, Rita R. Colwell, Kuishuang Feng, Rachel S. Franklin, Klaus Hubacek, FernandoMiralles-Wilhelm, TakemasaMiyoshi, Matthias Ruth, Roald Sagdeev, Adel Shirmohammadi, Jagadish Shukla, Jelena Srebric, VictorM. Yakovenko and Ning Zeng 

Physics

68(1) A theory of 2 + 1D bosonic topological orders 
 Xiao-Gang Wen 
68(1) A theory of 2 + 1D bosonic topological orders 
 Xiao-Gang Wen