Megan E. Piper, M.A., Danielle E. McCarthy, M.S., Timothy B. Baker, Ph.D.; Assessing Tobacco Dependence: A Guide to Measure Evaluation and Selection. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8 (3): 339-351. doi: 10.1080/14622200600672765
Tobacco dependence is a key construct in tobacco research. This paper describes a construct validation approach to dependence assessment and describes key conceptual and psychometric criteria on which to evaluate putative measures of dependence. Five current dependence scales—the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.); the Cigarette Dependence Scale; the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale; and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives—are examined with respect to these critical dimensions. Recommendations are made regarding the use of each measure.