Mastitis has been implicated as a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 through breast-feeding. Maternal vitamin A deficiency is also associated with increased MTCT, as well as with episodes of mastitis in lactating animals. This review describes the complex interrelationship between vitamin A, mastitis, and MTCT of HIV-1 via mothers' milk. Current gaps in knowledge, as well as recommendations for future research efforts, are also discussed.

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