Itziar Abete, Arne Astrup, J Alfredo Martínez, Inga Thorsdottir, Maria A Zulet; Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance. Nutr Rev 2010; 68 (4): 214-231. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00280.x
Weight loss and subsequent body weight maintenance are difficult for obese individuals despite the wide variety of dietary regimens and approaches. A substantial body of scientific evidence has shown that by simply varying the macronutrient distribution and composition of dietary factors, weight losses of varying amounts, longer-term body weight maintenance periods, better appetite regulation, and changes in features of the metabolic syndrome can be achieved. At present, renewed efforts are underway to increase the protein content of weight-loss diets, simultaneously restrict fat consumption to no more than 30%, favor polyunsaturated fat, have carbohydrates account for between 40 and 50% of total energy intake, and promote the consumption of low-glycemic foods. The present article reviews the scientific evidence for the effects of several dietary manipulations and sustainable strategies for weight loss and body weight stability as well as for treating specific features of the metabolic syndrome.