This summary covers the articles and attributed discussion in the present supplement, which resulted from the 24th Marabou Symposium titled “Nutrition and the Human Microbiome”, which was held in Stockholm in 2011 with the participation of about 40 global experts in microbiology, physiology, biology, and medicine. The individual articles address a number of topics related to the human microbiome; the attributed discussion, however, offers much more on the nature of the current scientific debate and provides insight into new opportunities for research as well as possible effects of the gut microbes, ranging from possible prenatal epigenetic effects to brain function and behavior.

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