## Instructions to Authors

#### MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

All manuscripts are submitted and reviewed online via Manuscript Central. The site can be accessed by logging onto http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/pme. New authors should create an account prior to submitting a manuscript for consideration. Questions about submitting to the journal should be sent to the editorial office at cmh53@comcast.net

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables or parts of text are to be included, the authors are responsible for obtaining the necessary permission from the copyright holder prior to submission. This permission should be included at the time of submission.

#### MANUSCRIPT CATEGORIES

##### Manuscripts will be considered in the form of:

Original Research Article(approximately 10–40 pages):Present results of original clinical and translational research.

Preliminary Research Article(approximately 10–25 pages):Present results of original research that is preliminary/pilot.

Brief Research Report (approximately 6–12 pages): Brief reports of promising or new research.

Reviews (approximately 20–40 pages):Comprehensive surveys covering a broad area. They consolidate old ideas and may suggest new ones. They must provide a critique of the current literature, and this review should be systematic, detailing the strategy for the review, the scoring system for article quality, and the criteria for inclusion and exclusion. Discussion of clinical implications is encouraged. We do not usually publish uninvited or narrative reviews; however, we welcome inquiries about ideas for reviews, which may be discussed with the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editor, Senior Editors or Section Editors before submission.

Special Article: On subjects not easily classified above (e.g., articles on history, education, demography, ethics socioeconomics, summary/ consensus reports of symposia, guidelines, etc.).

Case Report (approximately 6–12 pages): Describe a single case or a series of related cases. A case report/series must be unique, transformative, groundbreaking and/or educational and draw attention to important or unusual clinical situations/concepts, translational implications, new treatments, or complications. To be considered for publication as a Case Report, a manuscript must meet one or more of the following criteria: 1) complications or rare causes of pain that have not been widely publicized before; 2) particularly unique entities or sentinel events that are likely to change practice; 3) findings that are strikingly pertinent to the conceptual or research literature. Cases that would present an interesting perspective or a practical tip to our readers, but do not meet the above criteria, should be submitted as a Letter to the Editor (see instructions for letters below).

Technical Note (approximately 2-10 pages, maximum 12 references):Describe new, modified or evolving techniques in the field.  Devices, Methods, Protocols and New Metrics are appropriate subjects for a technical note.

Commentary (approximately 2–10 pages with a limit of 20 references): Submitted to present a perspective on clinical, research, ethical or forensic issues related to professionalism and clinical practice or invited as brief articles that serve as a companion to a full article presenting an alternative or a complimentary perspective.

Editorial (approximately 2-5 pages, no more that 20 references): Opinion or perspective on the content of Pain Medicine or of relevance to the field of pain should support the editorial position with a concise review of appropriate literature pro and con the opinion(s).

Letter to the Editor (maximum of 1000 words up to 5 double-spaced pages): These may offer criticism or commentary of published material or observations on important issues or case reports, but must be objective, constructive, and educational. A few references, a small table, or relevant illustrations may be used. Letters should begin with “Dear Editor”. Do not include an abstract. End your letter with your full name, title and location (city, state, country and email address).

#### PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT

Language editing, if your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here . Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

##### Format and Style Guidelines

Manuscripts must be submitted exclusively to Pain Medicine and will become the copyright of the Journal. Make sure that your manuscript file is double-spaced and has no hard returns at the end of lines. Ragged right margins are preferable to justified lines. The manuscript should be typed in 12 point font. All textual elements should begin flush left with no paragraph indents and two returns after every element, such as titles, headings, paragraphs, legends, etc. Please submit the manuscript in a Word file. Please be sure to keep a backup copy of the file for reference, as accepted manuscripts are not returned.

Manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Title Page: The first text page should contain: 1. Title; 2. Full names and affiliations for all authors, including highest academic degree; 3. Full postal address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address for the corresponding author, to whom the proofs will be sent followed by funding sources, conflict of interest and full disclosure information (see below); 4. Running title of no more than 6 words.

Abstracts: The abstract, on the page following the title page, must be 250 words or less, under the following headings, as appropriate: Objective, Design, Setting, Subjects, Methods, Results, and Conclusions (JAMA 1992;267:42–4). Abstracts are necessary for all papers. Up to six key words must be provided with the abstract. Letters, Commentary, Perspective and Editorial submissions should not include an abstract.

##### Research papers

Case Reports/Series:Should be structured as follows: Title page, as above; Abstract; Introduction; Methods including statistical analyses; Results; Discussion including clinical significance when appropriate; Conclusions; Acknowledgments and Conflict of Interest/Disclosure summary, References; Tables; Figure legends; Figures. In general, only highly innovative, unique and/or transformative Case Reports/Series will be reviewed. Please see previous section that lists the criteria for case reports.

Other articles:The above format may be varied between the Introduction and Acknowledgments sections for other articles. For instance, Letters and Editorials should not include an abstract.

Details of Style: Follow guidelines set by American Medical Association Manual of Style, Ninth Edition, Williams and Wilkins, 1989. Double-space throughout, including title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, legends for illustrations, and tables. Start each of these sections on a new page, numbered consecutively in the upper right-hand corner,

Drug names: Use generic names only in referring to drugs. If the trade name is necessary, e.g., in bio-availability studies, indicate it in parentheses.

Abbreviations: Keep abbreviations to the minimum, and define each at its first use. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

References:References forPain Medicineshould follow the Vancouver (or numerical) system. Identify with Arabic numerals inside parentheses. A full list of references should be provided in numerical order, sequentially as they appear in the text. Do not alphabetize.

Index Medicus reference style (see “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.” Ann Intern Med 1988;108:258–65). For abbreviations of journal names, refer toList of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus. Provide names of all authors, full article titles and inclusive pages. Accuracy of reference data is the responsibility of the author.

Examples:

Journal article:
1. Author AB, author CD. Title of paper. J Title Abbrev 1994; 00: 000-00. (In press.)

Article in edited book:
2. Author AB, Author CD, Author EF. Chapter title. In: Editor AB, Editor CD, eds. Title of Book. Place: Publisher; 1994: 000-00.

Book:
3. Author AB. Book Title, 5th edn. Place: Publisher; 1994.

Authorship Criteria: Authorship is an explicit way of assigning responsibility, giving credit for intellectual work, and ensuring transparency. The following are the criteria for authorship in Pain Medicine:

• Authors are those who made a significant contribution to (a) the study concept and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting/revising the manuscript for important intellectual content; and (c) approval of the final version to be published;
• Authors must meet all three criteria;
• All other persons making contributions that do not meet all three criteria should be acknowledged, typically by degree, academic or business affiliation, and specific contributions.

Corresponding Author Responsibilities:
• Serves as the primary contact on behalf of all coauthors.
• Ensures that the Funding Sources, Conflict of Interest/Disclosure and Acknowledgment Sections of the manuscript are complete and up-to-date for all authors.
• Includes all persons who have contributed to the manuscript but are not authors and obtains permission from each person listed in the Acknowledgment section.
• Will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services where they will be able to complete the assignment of copyright agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Prior Presentation and Publication: We will consider manuscript submissions covering study results that have been previously presented at a local, national, or international conference, and/or for which an abstract has been published or presented as a poster or platform session at societal meetings. If a manuscript is accepted and it is subsequently found that large parts or the entire study have been previously published, the journal may retract the article and include a notice of redundant publication.

Ethical Review Board Approval: All research must have the appropriate ethical review board approval for your institution (e.g., IRB). This information must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript.

Trade Names: Trade names may not be used in the text or title of Pain Medicine manuscripts, except that they should be mentioned once early in the Methods section in this fashion: generic name (Trade name®) and then only the generic name after that. Also the drug information should be included in the acknowledgement/disclosure/conflict of interest statement, again in the format: generic name (Trade name®).

Acknowledgment Statement: List all individuals who have substantially contributed to the work in this manuscript but who do not fulfill the authorship criteria. Also include their specific contribution (e.g., Data collection, editing, etc). These individuals must agree to their names being listed in the acknowledgements. Please include this information in the text of your manuscript prior to the list of references.

Crossref Funding Data Registry: In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.

#### Tables

Create tables using the table creating and editing feature of your word processing software. Do not use Excel or comparable spreadsheet programs. The entire table should be in editable Word format, i.e., do not paste a spreadsheet or picture into a Word document. Each table should be in a separate file and include the table title, appropriate column heads, and an explanatory legend. Define all symbols and abbreviations used. Identify statistical measures of variations such as SD and SEM. Omit internal horizontal and vertical lines. Do not embed tables within the body of the manuscript.

#### Figures

Figures must be submitted in digital format. Please supply line artwork (vector graphics) in Adobe Illustrator Artwork (AI), Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) or Tagged Image Format (TIFF) format, 1200 dots per inch (dpi), and bitmap files (halftone or photographic images) in TIFF format, 300 dpi for halftones and color; 600 dpi for combinations. Do not send native file formats.

All illustrations should be able to be reduced to 50–66% of their original size with no loss of clarity or legibility. Figures should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text. Supply legends for all figures. They should be brief and specific, and appear on a separate manuscript page after the references. If a figure has been previously published, permission must be received in writing for its use regardless of authorship or publisher. Acknowledgment of the original source must be included at the end of the legend.

Pain Medicine includes the Flexible Color Option. All figures submitted in color will be published in color online at no cost. Authors may choose to also publish their figures in color in the print journal for $600 per figure — you will be asked to approve this cost in an e-mail after your article is accepted, and will be issued an invoice at the time of publication. If you opt to publish figures in color online with black and white in print, each figure and its caption must be interpretable in grayscale. Avoid referring to color names in the caption, and include graphic elements in the figure for clarity (e.g., sample sets shown as red diamonds, green circles, blue triangles; graph bars shown as yellow hashed, green vertically striped, pink horizontally striped). View the figure in grayscale before submission to ensure it is legible. For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, visit http://art.cadmus.com/da/index.jsp and http://oxfordjournals.org/en/authors/figures.html #### Supplementary Data Submit all material to be considered as Supplementary Data online at the same time as the main manuscript. Ensure that it is referred to in the manuscript at an appropriate point in the text. Supplementary data will be available online only and will not be copyedited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style conforms to the rest of the paper. Each supplemental figure should have the legend incorporated in the figure file, not the main text. Also ensure that the presentation will work on any Internet browser. It is not recommended for the files to be more than 2 MB each, although exceptions can be made at the Editorial Office’s discretion. #### PEER REVIEW PROCESS All submissions to the journal are initially reviewed by one of the Editors. At this stage manuscripts may be rejected without peer review if it is felt that they are not of high enough priority or not relevant to the journal. This fast rejection process means that authors are given a quick decision and do not need to wait for the review process. Manuscripts that are not instantly rejected are sent out for peer review, usually to two independent reviewers. Based on the feedback from these reviewers and the Editors’ judgment a decision is given on the manuscript. The average time from submission to first decision is approximately 4–6 weeks. If a paper is not acceptable in its present form, we will pass on suggestions for revisions to the author. For information on the Journal’s review process or a manuscript’s progress, please contact the Managing Editor at cmh53@comcast.net. #### COPYRIGHT & PERMISSIONS It is a condition of publication that authors assign exclusive copyright to the American Academy of Pain Medicine. In assigning copyright, authors may use their own material in other publications, provided that Pain Medicine is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and both the Editor and Oxford University Press are notified in writing and in advance. Third-party copyright In order to reproduce any third party material, including tables, figures, or images, in an article authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder and be compliant with any requirements the copyright holder may have pertaining to this reuse. When seeking to reproduce any kind of third party material authors should request the following: • non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal; • print and electronic rights, preferably for use in any form or medium; • the right to use the material for the life of the work; and • world-wide English-language rights. Permissions Authors may use their own figures in other publications provided that the original paper in Pain Medicine is cited. It is particularly important to clear permission for use in both the print and online versions of the journal. We are not able to accept permissions which carry a time limit because we retain journal articles as part of our online journal archive. Please include all permissions at the time of submission. Further guidelines on clearing permissions can be found at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/resource/pdf/oxford journals guidelines for author permissions – September 2014.pdf Self-archiving policy For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page. #### ETHICAL GUIDELINES Authors should observe high standards with respect to publication ethics as set out by the Commission on Publication Ethics (COPE). Falsification or fabrication of data, plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors’ own work without proper citation, and misappropriation of the work are all unacceptable practices. Any cases of ethical misconduct are treated very seriously and will be dealt with in accordance with the COPE guidelines. The journal to which you are submitting your manuscript employs a plagiarism detection system. Conflict of interest: Oxford University Press requires declaration of any conflict of interest upon submission online. If the manuscript is published, conflict of interest information will be communicated in a statement in the published paper. Authors must disclose all financial support, including “ghost” writing (ghost authorship is not allowed; all authors substantially contributing to the writing must be mentioned as authors on the title page), and any other sources of potential bias or conflict of interest (e.g., expert testimony, device or process ownership or financial interest, pharmaceutical stock ownership, consultancy, advisory board membership, relevant patents, or research funding, etc.). Disclosure/Conflict of interest information must be included after the Corresponding Author contact information on the title page in bold. The name of each contributing author and any potential conflict of interest for each author for the previous 2 years should be listed. Examples: • Potential conflicts of interest. S.A. and K.H. are shareholders in Loke Diagnostics (Aarhus, Denmark). • Potential conflicts of interest. The author has served as consultant to and has received research grants from all of the manufacturers of the lipid formulations of amphotericin. • Potential conflicts of interest. E.H.P. has been a consultant to Fujisawa Healthcare, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Novartis, and GlaxoSmithKline and is a member of the speakers' bureaus for Pharmacia and Novartis. J.A.S. has received research funding from Bayer and Pharmacia, has been a consultant for Bayer and Pfizer, and has been on the speakers' bureau for Pfizer and Ortho McNeil. If no potential conflict exists, the phrase "No conflict" should appear after the author's name. If the article is accepted for publication, the disclosures will be published on the article opening page. Animal experiments: ;For reporting experiments involving animals, the Methods section should state whether the institution's, or a national research council's guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. (See International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [ICMJE]. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf. Human subjects: When reporting on human subjects, the Methods section should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration(1964, amended most recently in 2008) of the World Medical Association. The name of the authorizing body should be stated in the paper. The Methods section should include a statement that the patient’s written consent was obtained and any information, including illustrations, should be as anonymized as far as possible. Patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers should not be used in the text or in illustrative material. Statement of informed consent: Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note. For more information on publishing ethics and for OUP’s Statement on Publication Ethics please visit:http://www.oxfordjournals.org/en/authors/index.html. #### OPEN ACCESS Pain Medicineauthors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory copyright assignment agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for Open Access. Upon signing the license to publish your article Open Access, copyright for your article will be transferred to the AAPM. If you do not select the Open Access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged. RCUK/Wellcome Trust/COAF funded authors publishing in Pain Medicine can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY) for their articles. All other authors may use the following licences: • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC BY−NC) • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives licence (CC BY−NC−ND) Please click here for more information about Creative Commons licences. The open access charges are as follows. Charges for CC BY: • Regular charge: £2188 /$3500 / €2844
• Society member charge: £1450 / $2500 / €2175 • Reduced Rate Developing country charge*: £1094 /$1750 / €1422
• Free Developing country charge*: £0 / $0 / €0 Charges for CC BY−NC/CC BY−NC−ND: • Regular charge: £1875 /$3000 / €2437
• Society member charge: £1250 / $2000 / €1625 • Reduced Rate Developing country charge*: £938 /$1500 / €1219
• Free Developing country charge*: £0 / \$0 / €0

You can pay open access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post.

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

For information on OUP’s compliance with funding agency requirements, please visit http://www.oxfordjournals.org/en/oxford-open/funder-policies/index.html.

Please see Advance Access for a list of recently published papers. Advance Access enables us to publish accepted papers online soon after they have been proofed. New papers are put into Advance Access at regular intervals and are then taken off the page once they have been paginated, at which point the issue into which they are incorporated will be posted online. Abstracts and titles are searchable and accessible within the journal's web pages, the archive and PubMed. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes publication. The official publication date appears beneath the title of each manuscript article just before its digital object identifier (DOI).