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Instructions to Authors

Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan (abbreviated to PASJ in the following) publishes papers on all aspects of astronomy, astrophysics, and fields closely related to them.

Letters to the Editor are papers which aim at quick communication of observational as well as theoretical results having strong impacts on astronomy. Letters must not exceed six pages in length. Estimated pages can be counted by using conventional LaTeX macro (pasj01.cls).

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Link to Sections
Publication Ethics
(1) Open Access
(2) Page charges
(3) Color charges
(4) Offprints
Manuscript Format / Style
Figures and Illustrations
Permission to Reproduce Figures and Extracts
Supplementary Data
Copyright and Licence
Crossref Funding Data Registry
Open Access
Advance Access
Author Self-Archiving/Public Access Policy


Please read these instructions carefully and follow them closely to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with these instructions.
All material to be considered for publication in PASJ should be submitted in electronic form. PASJ does not accept paper submissions.
Please refer to the ‘ Instructions for electronic submission ’ for guidance on the online submission process.

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Authors should observe high standards with respect to publication ethics as set out by the Commission on Publication Ethics (COPE). Falsification or fabrication of data, plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors’ own work without proper citation, and misappropriation of the work are all unacceptable practices. Any cases of ethical misconduct are treated very seriously and will be dealt with in accordance with the COPE guidelines


All authors should have been involved in the writing of the manuscript at draft and any revision stages, and have read and approved the final version. Anyone who made major contributions to the writing of the manuscript should be listed as an author (e.g. “ghost writing” is prohibited by the Journal). Any other individuals who made less substantive contributions to the study or the writing of the manuscript should be listed in the acknowledgement section. Any change in authorship (including author order) after the initial manuscript submission must be approved in writing by all authors.


By submitting your manuscript to the journal it is understood that this it is an original manuscript and is unpublished work and is not under consideration elsewhere. Plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the author’s own work, in whole or in part without proper citation is not tolerated by the journal. Manuscripts submitted to the journal will be checked for originality using anti-plagiarism software

Conflicts of interest

At the point of submission, each author should reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated – including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. When considering whether you should declare a conflicting interest or connection please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it?

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Charges apply for publication in PASJ; please note that no payments are required prior to peer review and acceptance. You will be asked to confirm requirements for your article either at time of submission or after acceptance. Details of the charges which may apply are given below.

The total amount charged for your article publication is constituted of the following elements (please click the hyperlinks for full details):

Mandatory charges

- (1) Open access or (2) Page charges

Optional charges

- (3) Color charges
- (4) Offprints

The formula for calculating the total charges is as follows:

(1)(Open access charge) or (2)(Page charge × A) + (3)(Color charge × B) + (4)(Offprint charge × A × C)

A: number of typeset pages
B: number of color printed pages
C: number of copies

Please note that the invoices for these charges will be sent separately according to the production process. The invoice for (1) will be raised when you sign your copyright license form online, (2) and (3) will be raised when the article proof is ready for publication, and (4) will be raised when you submit a completed offprint order form.

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(1) Open access

PASJ authors have the option to publish their paper open access for a charge (£1,750 / €2,275 /$2,800 / ¥280,000). Open access charges are available for payment as soon as authors sign their open access license (when an article is submitted to Production). Please note that papers published under an open access license will not incur page charges. However, color printing and offprint charges will apply.

(2) Page charges

All articles incur a charge per typeset page which must be paid in full before an article is published. Page charges are payable when the article proof is ready for publication. From 1st January 2017 we have introduced a separate rate for Full ASJ members:

Full ASJ Members: £35 / €46 / $56 / ¥4,300

Standard rate: £49 / €64 / $78 / ¥6,000

(3) Color charges

PASJ offers free reproduction of color figures in the online version (figures in the print version will appear in black and white). If you require color printing of figures you will be asked to approve the cost (£250 / €325 / $400 / ¥25,000) per page. Color charges are payable when the article proof is ready for publication.

(4) Offprints

Authors receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. PASJ authors have the option to purchase printed offprints; a link to an offprint order form will be sent to the author in their "Welcome Email" when the paper is received in production. Charges for offprints are calculated based on the number of pages of the article and copies ordered:
(£0.18 / €0.24 / $0.30 / ¥20 × [number of typeset pages] × [number of copies])

To avoid delays in publication, please arrange payment as soon as you receive an invoice. Payment can be made by cheque, bank transfer or credit card, but Oxford University Press regrets that it is unable to accept purchase orders. The above sterling rates apply to authors outside of the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan. Authors in the United States and Canada will be charged in US dollars, authors in Europe will be charged in euros, and authors in Japan will be charged in yen. All rates are set annually and are not subject to exchange rate fluctuations


Authors are requested to follow the general style of recent issues of PASJ. It is recommended that papers are prepared using LaTeX because this is the method best suited to the mathematical nature of the material. We can usually also accept papers written using Microsoft Word or other word processing packages, although these are not suitable for papers with significant mathematical content. Typescripts should be single column and double-spaced. Please number each page.

LaTeX : For submission of TeX manuscripts, PASJ strongly recommends the use of its TeX template, which can be found below:

Class Files : here . Updated 17/03/2015

Please see our LaTeX submissions FAQ http://www.oxfordjournals.org/for_authors/latex.html page for more detailed instructions for LaTeX submissions. Once submitted, ScholarOne will compile the files uploaded to create single HTML/PDF file for peer-review. Please make sure that these files created are in correct form before completing your submission. See "FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS" for more detailed information on how to prepare your figures.

The location of Tables and Figures should be indicated in the text.

Please also include the files for any other supplementary material to be submitted with your manuscript. It is recommended that authors spell-check all files before submission.

Please use short, simple filenames when saving all your documents, and avoid special characters, punctuation marks, symbols (such as &), and spaces. If you are a Macintosh user, you must also type the extension at the end of the file name you choose.

Title and author information

The first page of the paper should contain:

(1) The title should be concise but informative. The title should be written in sentence case.

(2) The full name(s) of the author(s): It is important that authors ensure the following: (i) all names have the correct spelling and are in the correct order (first name, then family name); (ii) initials are correct. Occasionally, the distinction between surnames and forenames can be ambiguous, and this is to ensure that the authors’ full surnames and forenames are tagged correctly, for accurate indexing online.

(3) The name(s) of the institution(s) where the work was carried out with their address(es).

(4) The email address of one of the authors. When several authors belonging to different institutions are involved, the following example illustrates the correct style.

Ichiro SUZUKI,1 John A. BROWN,1 and Kazuko TAKAHASHI2
1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
2 Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

This should be followed by:


The abstract should be comprehensible to readers before they have read the paper, and reference and figure citations must be avoided. It should be one paragraph long and not exceed 300 words.

Key words

Authors should select three to five key words from the list of PASJ's key words, which can be found here.


Non-standard abbreviations should be defined at the first occurrence and introduced only where multiple use is made

Section titles

Papers should be sectioned with section numbers in Arabic numerals, followed by titles in the same format as the title of the paper.


Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section. An example sentence is given below: This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 11111111 and MEXT KAKENHI Grant Number 22222222.


Acknowledgments may be added as an extra section just after the main text.


Appendices may be put between the main text (including the acknowledgments) and the references. They should be arranged like sections.


Two or more references with the same authors: 

Smith and King (2003a, 2003b) (Smith & King 2003a, 2003b)

Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references.

Author's names in reference list:

One-author paper - Arrange chronologically

Brown, A. 1981a 

Brown, A. 1981b

Two-author paper - should be sorted alphabetically by the name of the co-author then chronologically 

Brown, B., & Adams, A. 1985, . . . 

Brown, B., & Smith, S. 1985, . . .

Three or more authors papers - should be sorted chronologically 

Brown, B., Adams, A., & Clive, C. 1989a, MNRAS, 123, 456 

Brown, B., Adams, A., & Ho, H. 1989b, MNRAS, 123, 567

For eight or more authors - Only eight or fewer names should appear in a single reference; if there are more, write as 'first author et al'.

Note: Journal titles in the references should be abbreviated.

Author's names in the text :

Two authors - “and” are used for citing outside parentheses Smith and King (2000)

Ampersands(&) are used for citing in parentheses (Smith & King 2000)

Three Authors - References with three authors should have all three listed for citing outside of parenthesis Smith, King, and Lee (2000) Use “et al.” with the first author for citing in parentheses. (Smith et al. 2000)

Four or more authors - If there are four or more authors, et al. is used throughout and the year in parenthesis, e.g., Scoville et al. (1975).

References given in parentheses should be separated by semicolons, e.g., (Scoville et al 1975; Sugiyama 2011).

When references are cited in the text, the last name of the author(s) and the publication year should be mentioned. The author's name may appear either in the text or in parentheses, but the publication year should always appear in parentheses.

When a reference is to a paper that has been submitted for publication, “submitted'” should be used concerning the known status of the paper. “In press” should be used for the paper that has been accepted for publication but not published yet. Do not list an unfinished work, such as “unpublished,” “to be published,” or “in preparation.”


Each table should be numbered sequentially using Arabic numerals. Tables should be given brief titles. Explanation, if necessary, should be put under the table as notes. Avoid the use of vertical lines in tables.


Lettering in the figures should use the same typeface and format as the main text. A brief descriptive caption should be provided for each figure. For more details of figure requirements, see "FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS"


Equations should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals in parentheses on the right-hand side. Equations in appendices make another sequence as (A1), (A2) etc. Equations are regarded as part of sentences; thus periods and commas should be added. When simple mathematical formulae are put into sentences, avoid, for example e -1/ x and y / x . They should be written in a linear form, as exp(-1/ x ) and y / x . (When simple mathematical formulae are put into sentences, avoid, for example, \(e^{-1/x}\) and \(\frac{y}{x}\). They should be written in a linear form, as \(\exp(-1/x)\) and \(y/x\). When references are made to figures, tables, and equations, they should be written as figure 1, table 3, section 5, equation (25) [avoid Fig. 1, Tab. 3, Sec. 5, Eq. (25)].


Subscripts and Superscripts Single letter -- roman/italic according to what the subscript denotes Proper names -- roman Multiletter -- roman

Differential Operator Differential d set in italic

Exponential 'e' Set e in italic

Iota 'i' Set i in italic

Fractions in the text Use 1/2 as a subscript or superscript in equations and in the text. If changing a fraction to a solidus in more complex superscripts, be very careful not to corrupt the mathematical meaning: e.g., is not the same as a/b+c. Insert brackets if necessary: e.g., a/(b + c)

Others Partial differential roman:for variables, its π sin, cos, tanh, log, exp, etc,. roman Dot multiplication for vectors is OK Vector cross-products should be set as a = b x c Unnecessary centred dots in maths should be removed

Scalars should be italics: S Vectors should be bold italics: S Matrices should be bold roman sans serif: M Tensors should be bold italics T Change 1-σ or 1-sigma to 1σ (repeat σ in serial data, e.g., 1σ, 2σ, 3σ, and 5σ)

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Please be aware that the requirements for online submission and for reproduction in the journal are different: (i) for online submission and peer review, please upload your figures either separately as low-resolution images (.jpg, .tif, .gif, .pdf or .eps) or embedded in the word processing file; (ii) for reproduction in the journal, you will be required after acceptance to supply high-resolution files, either in vector graphics or in an editable format (such as .ppt). Minimum resolutions are 300 d.p.i. for color or tone images, and 600 d.p.i. for line drawings. We advise that you create your high-resolution images first as these can be easily converted into low-resolution images for online submission.

Embedded text should not be typed by the language-dependent characters fonts, and outlining all texts are highly encouraged.

When creating figures, please make sure any embedded text is large enough to read. Many figures contain miniscule characters such as numbers on a chart or graph. If these characters are not easily readable, they will most likely be illegible in the final version. Certain image formats such as .jpg and .gif do not have high resolutions, so you may elect to save your figures and insert them as .tif instead.
For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to http://cpc.cadmus.com/da .

Color Illustrations

PASJ also offers free reproduction of color figures in the online version (figures in the print version will appear in black and white). If you require color reproduction of figures in the print journal you will be asked to approve the cost (£250/ €325 / $400/ ¥25,000) per page. You will be issued an invoice at the time of publication. Figure captions must be suitably worded to apply to both the print and online versions of the article.

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Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section at:https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/access_purchase/rights_and_permissions

Should you require copies of this then please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department on journals.permissions@oup.com

For a copyright prose work, it is recommended that permission is obtained for the use of extracts longer than 400 words; a series of extracts totaling more than 800 words, of which any one extract is more than 300 words; or an extract or series of extracts comprising one-quarter of the work or more.

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Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript for free of charge.
The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures.

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary data. All text, figures, and movies must be provided in suitable electronic formats. Author should prepare both legends and summary of the data, since that will be also reviewed by a referee. Avoid using the Language-dependent characters in each data.

All material to be considered as supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited. Please indicate clearly all material intended as supplementary data upon submission and name the files e.g., 'supplementary figure 1', 'supplementary data', etc. Also ensure that the supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as '(see supplementary data)' or '(see supplementary figure 1)'. Please limit the total file size of supplementary data to 40 MB.

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It is a condition of publication for PASJ that authors grant an exclusive license to the Journal, published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. This ensures that all of the necessary rights needed for publication of the article, including provision for any requests from third parties to reproduce content from the journals, are in place and are handled efficiently and consistently by OUP, enabling the content to be as widely disseminated as possible. No article will be published unless a license has been signed. Any queries about the license should be sent as soon as possible to Rights and Permissions so that any issues can be resolved quickly and to avoid any delay in publication.

As part of the terms of the license agreement, Authors may use their own material in other publications written or edited by themselves provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the Publisher. As the Author(s), copyright of the Article remains yours (or your employer’s if your employer claims copyright in your work). See here for full details of Oxford Journals' copyright policy and the rights retained by you/your institution under the terms of the license. Please note that for any content published as part of the Oxford Open program, there is an extended range of rights retained by you as the Author. For more details, please click here .

Details of how to sign the license using our online system will be sent after acceptance.

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In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here .


PASJ authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses. Authors publishing in PASJ can use the following Creative Commons license for their articles:

• Creative Commons Attribution license (CC-BY)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.
You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The Open Access charges applicable are:
Regular charge - £1,750 / €2,275 /$2,800 / ¥280,000

Please note that papers published under an Open Access license will not incur page charges. However, color printing and offprint charges will apply in addition to the Open Access charge. Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure your account for your own local VAT correctly.

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Authors are sent page proofs by email. These should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the editors as an annotated PDF via email within 3 working days along with the reprint order form (further details are supplied with the proof). It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.
The author will receive only the first proof for proof-reading. It is requested that she/he examines it with the utmost care, since the second proof is not sent to the author.
Serious changes in content are not permitted at proof stage, however the author may add notes in proof.

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Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased; an offprint order form will be sent to the author when the paper is received in production.
Charges for offprints are calculated based on the number of pages of the article and copies ordered:
(£0.18 \ €0.24 \ $0.30 \ ¥20 x [number of pages] x [number of copies]

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Advance Access articles are published online soon after they have been accepted for publication, in advance of their appearance in a printed journal. Appearance in Advance constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier ). When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.

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For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page .
For PhD candidates at universities in Japan: Authors publishing all or part of their PhD thesis in PASJ may deposit the Accepted Manuscript PDF of the portion of their thesis published in the journal in the awarding institution's repository in accordance with academic degree regulations, but must stipulate that public availability be delayed until 12 months after first online publication in the journal.
*Accepted Manuscript
The accepted manuscript is defined here as the final draft author manuscript, as accepted for publication by a journal, including modifications based on referees’ suggestions, before it has undergone copyediting and proof correction.

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