In late 1922, following the assassination of German Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau by members of the ultra-nationalist terror organization Consul, the communist Reichstag delegate Paul Fröhlich published his book Wider den weißen Mord (Against the White Terror), with which he wished to contribute to the ongoing debate about the nature of counter-revolutionary violence in post-war Central Europe.1 Three years after the bloody suppression of the so-called Spartacist Uprising in Berlin, the crushing of the Munich Soviet republic by German and Austrian Freikorps, and the fall of the communist Béla Kun regime in Hungary, Fröhlich's book aimed to explain the endurance of paramilitary violence and nationalist terror in the defeated states of Central Europe. Following the failure of communist uprisings in Central Europe, this wave of ultra-nationalist violence claimed tens of thousands of lives, including those of prominent politicians and public...

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