At six o'clock on the evening of 31 May 1873, Shah Nasir al-Din of Persia, fourth king of the Qajar dynasty, and his entourage arrived at Potsdam Station in Berlin, where they were greeted by the German Emperor Wilhelm I, Crown Prince Friedrich, Chancellor Bismarck and Field Marshal Moltke. Welcomed by the cheering of thousands, the shah entered Berlin along Unter den Linden, sitting in an open carriage next to the kaiser. The Persian monarch returned to the German capital to be received by the Hohenzollern monarchs in the summers of 1878 and 1889. He was the first Persian head of state ever to have visited Europe. Some years later his son and successor, Muzaffar al-Din, was also received in Berlin. He entered the capital in June 1902 and passed through Germany in 1900 and 1905, although he was not formally received...

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