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General

Al newly accepted articles will be cited using the following format:

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, vv, xxx-xxx.

(Note specifically, it starts with “The”; there is a comma and not hyphen before Series; there is no B on the volume number; and there are no letters in the page numbers.)

Please note that articles being cited prior to March 1, 2011 should be cited as follows:

For JG:PS
The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, vv, Pxxx-Pxxx.

For JG:SS
The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, vv, Sxxx-Sxxx.

INTRODUCTION
The Gerontological Society of America (GSA), the publisher of The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, was founded in 1945 to promote the scientific study of aging, to encourage exchanges among researchers and practitioners from the various disciplines related to gerontology, and to foster the use of gerontological research in forming public policy. The organization fosters collaboration between physicians, nurses, biologists, behavioral and social scientists, psychologists, social workers, economists, policy experts, those who study the humanities and arts, and many other scholars and researchers in aging. Through networking and mentorship opportunities, GSA provides a professional "home" for 5,500 career gerontologists and students at all levels. For more information about GSA, visit geron.org.

AIMS AND SCOPE OF THE JOURNAL

The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences publishes articles using a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches encompassing quantitative, qualitative, experimental, and non-experimental research. Authors are encouraged to submit papers in areas such as anthropology, demography, economics, epidemiology, geography, health services research, political science, public health, social history, social work, and sociology.

Due to the high volume of submissions, we are unable to offer pre-screening advice. Instead, please refer to the aims and scope of the journal to determine if the journal is a suitable venue for your work.

On this page:

Introduction
Aims and Scope of the Journal
Types of Manuscripts Considered
Formatting
Components of the Manuscript
Additional Policies and Considerations
How to Submit Online Using ScholarOne
Review Process
Paper Acceptance Information
Author Rights and Benefits
Opportunities for Mentors
Editorial Correspondence

TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS CONSIDERED

The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences will accept the following kinds of manuscripts:

Original Research Reports: The maximum allowable word count of manuscripts reporting empirical studies should not exceed 5,000 words; in unusual circumstances (multi-study reports, complex analyses), authors may submit up to 6,000 words of text. The reference list is limited to 50 entries, and the references, tables, and figures must not exceed an additional 10 pages.

Brief Reports: The maximum allowable word count is 2,000 words. The word count includes title page, abstract and text. The reference list is limited to 30 entries, and the references, tables, and figures must not exceed an additional 5 pages.

New Directions in Aging Research: The goal of these review articles is an integrative presentation of findings on a cutting-edge topic with attention to theoretical and methodological implications for future work on the selected topic. It is expected that these papers will include a novel integration and critical analysis of existing views in a specific area that has not been reviewed elsewhere, as well as proposed resolution(s) of controversial positions to advance the field. Methodological contributions should present innovative methods for the study of adult development and aging, which should be supported with examples based upon empirical data if possible. The maximum allowable word count is 5,000 words; in unusual circumstances (multi-study reports, complex analyses), authors may submit up to 6,000 words of text. The word count includes title page, abstract and text. The reference list is limited to 50 entries, and the references, tables, and figures must not exceed an additional 10 pages.

FORMATTING

Manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word or a Word-compatible program at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jgss. Manuscripts should be double spaced in 12-pt Times New Roman font; this includes references and all tables. Figures should use 12-pt font for all graphs, axis labels, and line art so that the figures can be reduced for publication if accepted. Manuscripts submitted in other formats and styles will be unsubmitted and returned to the corresponding author for correction prior to editor review. Please DO NOT submit PDF versions of your manuscript submission materials.

Style
Manuscripts should be prepared using APA style. For detailed information, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), http://apastyle.org.

Abbreviations
Ensure that the use of abbreviations is clear and that each one is defined in the text at its first mention only.

Footnotes
Footnotes, indicated by superscript figures in the text, should be used rarely and only for essential explanatory notes. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively, should be kept as brief as possible, and should be placed on a separate page. Authors are responsible for checking the accuracy of all footnotes and references.

COMPONENTS OF THE MANUSCRIPT

Cover Letter (optional)
A cover letter is not required and is optional. It should explain how the manuscript is innovative, provocative, timely, and of interest to a broad audience, and other information authors wish to share with editors. Note: The cover letter for manuscripts will NOT be shared with reviewers.

Title Page with Author Information and Acknowledgments
The title page should be a separate file, not merged into the manuscript file. This document will not be viewable by reviewers, but will remain with the online submission. It should contain the following:

(1) Title of the manuscript;
(2) All authors' full name(s) and affiliations;
(3) Clear designation of the corresponding author, complete with e-mail address;
(4) Funding details and (optional) acknowledgment (see Funding section for more information); and
(5) A declaration of any conflict of interest, if applicable.

Author contributions to the manuscript should be indicated. For example: A. B. Cox planned the study, supervised the data analysis, and wrote the paper. D. E. Furr performed all statistical analyses and contributed to revising the paper. G. H. Irwin and J. K. Lyon helped to plan the study, including the instrumentation, and to revise the manuscript. Please indicate where correspondence should be addressed; list e-mail address after the zip code.

Funding
Details of all funding sources should be given on the detailed title page.

When providing details of funding sources, the following rules should be followed:

• The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’

• The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH' (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)

• Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in parentheses as follows: ‘(grant number ABX CDXXXXXX)'

• Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘(grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)’

• Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)

• Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.); and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (HFY GR667789).’

Crossref Funding Data Registry
In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.

Conflict of Interest
At the point of submission, each author should reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated – including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. When considering whether you should declare a conflicting interest or connection please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it?

As part of the online submission process, corresponding authors are required to confirm whether they or their co-authors have any conflicts of interest to declare, and to provide details of these. It is the Corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy.

Anonymous Title Page
The anonymous title page should include the title of the manuscript and separate word counts for the text and for the references. 

Abstract and Keywords
On the page immediately following the title page, include a structured abstract of no more than 200 words, double spaced. It should contain four headers: Objectives, Method, Results, and Discussion.

At the bottom of the abstract pages, authors should supply three to five keywords that are NOT in the title. (Please avoid elders, older adults, or other words that would apply to all manuscripts.) Please note three keywords must be entered in order to move forward in the online submission process.

Text
The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences employs a double-blind peer review to ensure an impartial evaluation. Manuscript files must be uploaded to the Web site with all identifying information removed, including author identification on the title page and self- references in the body of the text. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the corresponding author will be required to submit a final version of the accepted paper with the identifying information included.

The text of research articles should be divided into major sections with the headings Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Articles may require subheadings within sections to clarify their content. The Discussion should not merely restate the results but should interpret the results.

(1) The word counts for the different kinds of publications considered by the Journal are presented above and are inclusive of the title page, abstract, and text.

(2) To manage the word and page counts, authors are encouraged to submit detailed methodology, tables, and/or figures as supplemental files. If your manuscript is accepted, these files are available to readers on line but do not count against the word count limits.

(3) If manuscripts exceed these word/page count limits, your manuscript may be returned to you for correction BEFORE the peer review process can begin. The abstract limit of 200 words is not negotiable. If you would like to the word count limit for the text of the manuscript, permission must be granted by the Editor in Chief prior to submission. When you submit your manuscript, please indicate in your cover letter that permission has been granted and the date it was granted.

References
In-text citations and references of journals, books, multi-author books and articles published online should conform to the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2009). References in the text are shown by citing in parentheses the author’s surname and/or the year of publication [e.g., “A recent study (Jones, 2007) showed, or Jones (2007) has shown].

The reference list should be double spaced and arranged alphabetically by author’s surname; do not number. The reference list should include only references cited in the text and should generally not exceed 50 entries for original research and theoretical/methodological articles, and 30 for brief reports. Do not include references to private communications. Please add Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to the reference section. One way to locate the DOIs is to use CrossRef.org. This is a free service by which one submits a formatted reference list and it returns the DOIs for the cited articles. After creating an account, go to Simple Text Query in the Technical Resources options.

Tables
1. Each table should be in Microsoft Word or a Word-compatible program on a separate page of the main document.

2. Tables should be placed at the end of the manuscript, after the references. Do not submit as separate files.

3. Number the tables consecutively using Arabic numbers and supply a brief title at the top for each.

4. Titles should describe the content of the table, the population to which the table refers, and other pertinent information so that the table is interpretable by the reader with minimal reference to the text.

5. Units in which results are expressed should be given in parentheses at the top of each column and not repeated in each line of the table. Ditto signs should not be used.

6. Avoid overcrowding the tables, the excessive use of words, and the use of multiple levels of column heads (called spanner heads). Place information pertaining to the column heads themselves in lettered footnotes; for instance, the number of observations, Ns, and log likelihood values. If the N is the same for all columns, include it in the table Notes instead of in the column heads.

7. Avoid abbreviations within the table itself. If used, however, each abbreviation must be explained in the table’s Note.

8. Notes and footnotes for the table should be typed immediately below the table. General notes are first and include abbreviations; these notes are preceded by the italicized word "Note" and a period. Footnotes are below general notes and should follow the sequence cited in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: a, b, c, d, etc. (not italicized). The p-values appear last, beneath the footnotes, and use asterisks (*p<.05).

9. The format of tables should be in keeping with APA style; in particular, vertical lines, colored text, and shading should not be used.

10. Please be certain that the data given in tables are correct.

11. For horizontal alignment, column heads should be aligned on the first rule of the table or on spanner rules and entries in rows in the table body should be aligned on the top line of the entry.

12. For vertical alignment, columns of data should be aligned on common elements such as decimal points, plus/minus signs, or hyphens. If table entries consist of lengthy text, the flush-left format should be used with an indent for run-over lines. If columns contain mixed data, please align on the decimal point.

13. There is a limit on the size of tables: Tables that take more than one manuscript page should be submitted as supplementary material and will posted online only.

Figures / Illustrations
The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material. Each figure should be uploaded as a separate file in .TIF, .JPG, or .EPS format at sufficient resolution (i.e., 300 dpi at 5 in.) to be clear, sharp images when reduced to print size. Captions for figures should be typed double space on a separate page in the main document and include numbers corresponding to the proper figure.

Color Figures
Figures may appear in color online, but will only appear in print when deemed necessary. Please contact the Editorial Office for further information about color figures at jgeronsoc@geron.org.

Table Titles and Captions for Illustrations
Type table titles and figure captions double spaced on a separate page following the references in the main document with numbers corresponding to the table of illustration. Table titles and figure captions should provide sufficient information so that the reader can understand the tables and figures with minimal reference to the text. Explain symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters used in illustrations. Explain internal scale and identify staining method in photomicrographs. 

Supplementary Material
Supporting material can be made available by the publisher online-only and linked to the published article. This material includes supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text to understand the conclusions of the paper but contains data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content and therefore may benefit the reader. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures.

It is standard practice for appendixes to be made available online-only as supplementary data. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary material must be submitted for peer review as separate files at the same time as the main manuscript and indicated clearly as supplementary material. Also ensure that the supplementary material is cited in the main manuscript where necessary, for example "(see Supplementary data)" or "(see Supplementary Figure 1)". The material cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and it will not be edited.

Appendixes
All appendices will be published online only as supplementary material (please see the description of Supplementary Material above).

ADDITIONAL POLICIES AND CONSIDERATIONS

Permission for Illustrations and Figures
Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors; submit this evidence by uploading the letter as a "Permission for Previously Published Material" file in the File Upload section of the journal submission site. The author is responsible for including acknowledgments as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see Sections 2.3 and 2.6 when you click on Guidelines for Author Permissions in "Rights and Permissions Guidelines for Authors" at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/access_purchase/rights_permissions.html. If you require copies of the Permissions Guidelines for Authors, please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department.

Ethics
The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences expects that authors will observe high standards with respect to publication ethics. For example, the following practices are unacceptable: (a) falsification or fabrication of data; (b) plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors' own work, in whole or in part, without proper citation; (c) misappropriation of the work of others such as omission of qualified authors or of information regarding financial support. Allegations of unethical conduct will be discussed initially with the corresponding author. In the event of continued dispute the matter will be referred to the author's institution and funding agencies for investigation and adjudication.

Oxford Journals, publisher of The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and the journal strives to adhere to the COPE code of conduct and guidelines. For further information, see http://publicationethics.org/.

Any study using human subjects or materials needs to state the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and number, and any study using animals needs to state the Institutional Animal Care approval and number. Any other ethics approvals should also be listed. If no ethical approvals were required, please state this.

Statement of informed consent
Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

Conditions for submission
Submission of a manuscript to the journal implies that it has not been published or is not under consideration elsewhere. If accepted for this journal, it is not to be published elsewhere without permission. As a further condition of publication, the corresponding author will be responsible, where appropriate, for certifying that permission has been received to use copyrighted instruments or software employed in the research and that human or animal subjects approval has been obtained. 

In the case of co-authored manuscripts, the corresponding author will also be responsible for submitting a letter, signed by all authors, indicating that they actively participated in the collaborative work leading to the publication and agree to be listed as an author on the paper. These assurances will be requested at the time a paper has been formally accepted for publication.

Post-production Corrections

The publisher will make no correction to a paper already published without and erratum or corrigendum (as applicable); this applies to papers on Advance Access and published within and issue. This policy means that any change made to a paper already published online will have a corresponding erratum or corrigendum published with its own separate DOI. Whether on Advance Access or in an issue, if an erratum or corrigendum is published, the online version of the original paper will also be corrected online and the correction notice will mention that the correction has been made. Corrections will only be made if the publication record is seriously affected by the scholarly accuracy of the published information.

Authors' corrections to Supplementary Data are made only in exceptional circumstances (for example major errors that compromise the conclusion of the study). Because the Supplementary Data is part of the original paper and therefore the published record, the information cannot be updated if new data have become available or interpretations have changed. 

HOW TO SUBMIT ONLINE USING SCHOLARONE

Manuscripts must be submitted online at The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences online submission site. Instructions on submitting your manuscript online can be viewed here. After reading the instructions, if you still have questions on how to submit your manuscript online, contact the Editorial Office at jgeronsoc@geron.org.

REVIEW PROCESS

All papers published in The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences are subject to peer review. Papers that are outside the scope of the journal, that do not comply with the guidelines below or are otherwise judged to be unsuitable by the editor will be rejected without peer review. Peer-reviewed manuscripts are sent to at least two independent referees for evaluation. Authors are required to suggest reviewers of international standing. Reviewers advise on the originality and scientific merit of the paper; the editors make all final decisions on publication. Corresponding authors will be notified via email with decisions and revision requirements, if applicable. Please ensure that email addresses are current for notification purposes.

PAPER ACCEPTANCE INFORMATION

Licenses and Copyright
It is a condition of publication in The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences that authors grant an exclusive license to The Gerontological Society of America. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the Publisher.

Upon receipt of accepted papers at Oxford Journals, authors will be required to complete an online copyright license to publish form. This form will be sent to the corresponding author via email.

Please note that by submitting a manuscript for consideration for publication, you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the submission. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you designated in the submission process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Information about the Creative Commons license can be found at http://creativecommons.org/.

For additional information about your accepted paper, please contact the Editorial Office at jgeronsoc@geron.org.

For post acceptance information, contact the Editorial Office at jgeronsoc@geron.org.

AUTHOR RIGHTS AND BENEFITS

Advance Access
Advance Access allows for papers to be published online soon after they have been accepted for publication---reducing the time between submission and publication. Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset but not yet paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, with full-text functionality, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). The final manuscript is then paginated into an issue, at which point it is removed from the Advance Access page. Both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

Author Self-Archiving/Public Access Policy
For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.

Open Access
The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process, you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences can use the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licenses:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC-BY-NC)
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license (CC-BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.

Charges for CC-BY
• Regular charge: £2125/ $3400 / €2763
• List B Developing country charge*: £1063/ $1700 / €1382
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

Charges for CC-BY-NC/CC-BY-NC-ND:
• Regular charge: £1875/ $3000 / €2438
• List B Developing country charge*: £1434/ $1500 / €1242
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any page charges and color charges that might apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

Offprints
Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50. Rates are indicated on the order form which must be returned with the proofs.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR MENTORS

For students or emerging scholars interested in participating in the review process for The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, we provide an opportunity for novice reviewers. Novice reviewers are added as a third reviewer to manuscripts that we send out for peer review. These reviews are given full consideration in the editorial decision. This process gives new professionals an opportunity not only to review a manuscript, but also to experience the review process, editorial decisions, and manuscript revision process. This also helps the novice reviewer learn how to publish in The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences. After individuals successfully complete two or more reviews, novice reviewers will become regular reviewers. All reviewers are asked to return their reviews within 2 weeks.

We encourage individuals to serve as a mentor to new professionals interested in the review process for The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences. The current review form allows for this designation so that all invited reviews can be completed with a reviewer-in-training, if interested.

Editorial Correspondence
For additional information, please contact the Editorial Office at jgeronsoc@geron.org.


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