The structure of a gaseous envelope surrounding a protoplanet has been investigated in connection with the formation of the giant planets. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium, the structure has been calculated for the regions of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Energy transfer in the envelope has been taken into account precisely.
When the core mass increases beyond some critical value, the envelope cannot be in hydrostatic equilibrium and collapses onto the core. The most remarkable result is that a common relation between the core mass and the total mass holds irrespectively of the regions in the solar nebula. Therefore, at the collapse, the core mass becomes almost the same regardless of the regions in the nebula. This is consistent with the conclusion obtained from the theory of internal structure of the present giant planets. The grain opacity in the envelope should be about 1cm2/g in order to explain the estimated core mass (about 10 Earth's mass) of the giant planets. The value of the grain opacity is larger than that expected before.
Dissipation of the Primordial Terrestrial Atmosphere Due to Irradiation of the Solar EUV Minoru Sekiya, Kiyoshi Nakazawa and Chushiro Hayashi
The Gaseous Flow around a Protoplanet in the Primordial Solar Nebula Satoshi Miki
Gravitational Instabilities in a Dust-Gas Layer and Formation of Planetesimals in the Solar Nebula Minoru Sekiya
Origin of the Solar System Kiyoshi Nakazawa and Yoshitsugu Nakagawa
Structure of the Solar Nebula, Growth and Decay of Magnetic Fields and Effects of Magnetic and Turbulent Viscosities on the Nebula Chushiro Hayashi
Chapter 21. Planetary Growth in Gas-Free Environment Masahiko Hayakawa and Hitoshi Mizutani
Chapter 22. Primordial Atmosphere Surrounding a Protoplanet and Formation of Jovian Planets Hiroshi Mizuno and Kiyoshi Nakazawa
Chapter 23. Gas Capture by Proto-Jupiter and Proto-Saturn Minoru Sekiya, Shoken M. Miyama and Chushiro Hayashi