The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was originally designed as a rating system that provides balanced representation of positive and negative symptom features. Evidence from recent factor-analytic studies suggests that a five-dimensional solution appears to best fit the psychopathological data as assessed with the PANSS. To investigate the dimensional structure, we administered the PANSS to 253 inpatients with schizophrenia. In accordance with former studies, principal components analyses yielded five orthogonal dimensions: hostile excitement; negative, cognitive, and positive syndrome; and depression. When compared with questionnaires measuring subjective nonpsychotic experiences of schizophrenia, paranoid mood, and depression, the correlation pattern verifies the PANSS components. In addition, we investigated a subsample of 70 male patients with a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), a Span of Apprehension Task, and a Modality Shift Effect (MSE) paradigm; the CPT was significantly associated with the cognitive syndrome, and the MSE correlated with the negative syndrome.