# Instructions to Authors

SLEEP is the official publication of the Sleep Research Society (SRS). SLEEP is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific and medical journal that is published online. SLEEP publishes a wide spectrum of basic, translational and clinical sleep/circadian research findings. The primary audiences are research and clinical professionals specializing in sleep and circadian science and medicine.

Members of the Sleep Research Society (SRS), the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and journal subscribers have access to all new and archived articles. All articles are available to the public as free to access twelve months after publication.

Increase exposure to your research by publishing in SLEEP:

• Accepted papers are immediately available on the SLEEP website for viewing by all SRS and AASM members and other subscribers.
• Accepted abstracts are available on PubMed as Ahead of Print.
• All articles are available free to the public twelve months after publication.
• Noteworthy manuscripts are promoted to various national and local media via the journal's public relations staff.

# Manuscript Submission Instructions

Articles cannot be concurrently submitted or published by any other publication, print or electronic. Meeting abstracts are excepted. The SRS is not responsible in the event that any manuscript, or any part thereof, is lost.

All materials are submitted and edited electronically using ScholarOne. To submit an original manuscript, review article, editorial or letter to the editor, please go to ScholarOne Manuscript Central. Complete instructions for the electronic submission process can be found on this site.

# Submission Fee

To help offset publishing costs, there is a nominal, nonrefundable submission fee of $50 for all original scientific manuscripts submitted for publication in SLEEP. This fee will be collected during the manuscript submission process and is nonrefundable. No fee will be required for other types of manuscript submissions such as, review articles, editorials and letters to the editor. # Scope/Categories of Manuscripts SLEEP publishes original basic, translational and clinical research findings in the areas of sleep and circadian medicine and sleep and circadian science, broadly defined. Manuscripts must not be concurrently submitted to any other publication, print or electronic. Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of the SRS and may not be published elsewhere without written permission from the SRS. All accepted manuscripts and supporting documents are subject to manuscript copyediting for conciseness, clarity, grammar, spelling, and SLEEP journal style. The following types of manuscripts are accepted: ## Original Manuscripts Original Manuscripts present original research findings in the fields of sleep/circadian medicine and sleep/circadian science, broadly defined. There is no maximum length for Original Manuscripts, but reductions in manuscript length (including numbers of figures and/or tables) may be required as an outcome of peer review. Original manuscripts are typically 5000 to 6000 words and include eight or fewer tables/figures. There are no minimum length requirements for Original Manuscripts, but the submission of incomplete data sets, partial cohorts or pilot data is discouraged. SLEEP does not publish individual patient-based case reports or case series that lack a comparator or control group and thus lacks analytical components for hypothesis testing. ## Review Articles Review articles on important topics can be submitted to SLEEP for consideration. Review articles are critical evaluations of material that has already been published. An author of a review article should consider the progress of current research toward clarifying a problem. A review paper should summarize previous investigations in order to inform the reader of the state of current research; identify relations, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature; and suggests the next step or steps in solving the problem. The review section may also include summaries of symposia presentations at national or international meetings. Editors will initially review these submissions for merit and request peer reviews if deemed appropriate. Additions and changes may be requested of the author to better communicate the state of the art presented in the review. There are no guarantees of acceptance of Review Articles that undergo peer review. ## Editorials and Letters to the Editor Editorials have a maximum word length of 1,500 words with as many references as needed, and may include one figure or table. Letters to the editor should be no more than 1,000 words and references should be limited to a maximum of ten. # Essential Elements of Manuscript Submission ## Clinical Trial Registration SLEEP requires that all clinical trials, regardless of when they were completed, and all partial and secondary analyses of original clinical trials must be registered before submission of a manuscript based on the trial. Trials must have been registered at or before the onset of patient enrollment for any clinical trial that began patient enrollment on or after February 1, 2007. The trial name, URL, and registration number should be included at the end of the manuscript abstract. The following trial registries are acceptable: ## Ethics of Investigation Authors should specify within the manuscript whether ethical standards were used in their research. If results of an experimental investigation in human or animal subjects are reported, the manuscript should describe the approval by an institutional review board on human or animal research, and the appropriate informed consent procedures for human subjects. If approval by an institutional review board is not possible, then information must be included indicating that clinical experiments conform to the principals outline by the Declaration of Helsinki. ## Privacy and Informed Consent Authors must omit from their manuscripts and figures any identifying details regarding patients and study participants, including patients’ names, initials, Social Security numbers, or hospital numbers. If there is a possibility that a patient may be identified in text, figures, photos or video, authors must obtain written informed consent for use for in publication of print, online, and licensed uses of SLEEP, from the patient or parent or guardian and provide copies of the consent forms to SLEEP. In such cases where the patient may be identified, authors must indicate that they have obtained informed consent in their manuscript. In addition, all authors are responsible for ensuring that their manuscript and figures comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) (www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa). # Publication Ethics Authors should observe high standards with respect to publication ethics as set out by the Commission on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Falsification or fabrication of data; plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors’ own work without proper citation; and misappropriation of work are all unacceptable practices. Cases of ethical misconduct are treated very seriously and will be dealt with in accordance with COPE guidelines. The US Office of Research Integrity defines scientific misconduct and includes these behaviors: • Falsification of data: ranges from fabrication to deceptive reporting of findings and omission of conflicting data, or willful suppression and/or distortion of data. • Plagiarism: The appropriation of the language, ideas or thoughts of another without crediting their true source and representation of them as one’s own original work. • Improprieties of authorship: improper assignment of credit, such as excluding others, misrepresentation of the same material as original in more than one publication, inclusion of individuals as authors who have not made a definite contribution to the work published, or submission of multi-authored publications without the concurrence of all authors. • Misappropriation of the ideas of others: an important aspect of scholarly activity is the exchange of ideas among colleagues. Scholars can acquire novel ideas from others during the process of reviewing grant applications and manuscripts. However, improper use of such information can constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct. • Violation of generally accepted research practices: serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results. • Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research: including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biological or chemical materials. • Inappropriate behavior in relation to misconduct: this includes unfounded or knowingly false accusations of misconduct, failure to report known or suspected misconduct, withholding of information relevant to a claim or misconduct and retaliation against persons involved in the allegation or investigation. Many journals, including SLEEP, also consider misconduct to include redundant publication and duplicate publication, lack of declaration of competing interests and of funding/sponsorship, and other failures of transparency. ## Managing allegations of misconduct The Editorial Staff take seriously all possible instances of misconduct. If an editor has concerns that a submitted article describes something that might be considered to constitute misconduct in research, publication or professional behavior, the editorial team will discuss the case in confidence. If the case cannot be resolved by discussion with the author(s) and the Editor-in-Chief still has concerns, the case may be reported to the appropriate authorities. If, during the course of reviewing an article, an editor is alerted to possible problems (for example, fraudulent data) in another publication, the editor should immediately alert the Editor-in-Chief. Readers that suspect misconduct in a published article are encouraged to report this to the Editor–in-Chief. Cases of research publication misconduct may be referred to COPE in an anonymized format if further guidance is required. ## Authorship All authors listed on the manuscript should have contributed significantly to the design or implementation of the experiment or the analysis and interpretation of the data. All authors should have been involved in the writing of the manuscript at the draft and any revision stages and have read and approved the final version. Any other individuals who contributed to the experiment or the writing of the manuscript should be listed in the Acknowledgment section. We do not allow dual first authors. Any requests to list two persons as co-first authors within the manuscript will not be approved. Corresponding author. More than one corresponding author is permitted for each manuscript, and both authors will appear on the correspondence line on the final article. However, only one can be considered the corresponding author in the manuscript submission system; thus, only the first author entered in the system will receive automated messages, such as editors’ decisions and page proofs. Authorship requirements. For guidelines on authorship, please refer to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals [PDF], formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The cover letter should state that all authors have seen and approved the manuscript. ## Originality By submitting a manuscript to the journal, the authors affirm that it is an original manuscript, is unpublished work, and is not under consideration elsewhere. ## Authorship and "Umbrella" groups Many large collaborative studies are organized under a group name that represents all the participants. All articles must have at least one named individual as author. Authors who wish to acknowledge the umbrella group from which the data originate should list the authors of the article, followed by "on behalf of the [GROUP NAME]". The members of the group should be listed individually in the acknowledgments section, and if correctly presented will ultimately be listed in Medline as “collaborators.” ## Conflict of Interest Conflict of interest exists when an author has financial or other interests that could be reasonably perceived to inappropriately influence his or her judgment. Because of this, authors must disclose potentially conflicting interests so that others can make judgments about such effects. At the time of submission authors should disclose any financial arrangements or connections they may have that are pertinent to the submitted manuscript and that may be perceived as potentially biasing their paper. Non-financial interests that could be relevant in this context should also be disclosed. If no relevant interests exist, this should be stated. This requirement applies to all the authors of a paper and to all categories of papers including letters to the editor. Authors may consult with the Editor-in-Chief regarding material to be included in this disclosure (by email to rszym@ucla.edu ). Such consultation will be held in strict confidence. All submissions must contain a Disclosure Statement. The Disclosure Statement is a requirement that applies at the time of submission, to all the authors of a paper and to all categories of papers (including letters to the editor). Papers that do not include a Disclosure Statement will not be reviewed. The Disclosure Statement should be placed before the references and after the acknowledgments (if applicable). The Disclosure Statement includes: • Financial arrangements or connections that are pertinent to the submitted manuscript. If there are no interests to declare, the title should be inserted followed by “None”. • Non-financial interests that could be relevant in this context should also be disclosed. If there are no interests to declare, the title should be inserted followed by “None”. The Disclosure Statement may be created automatically via the ICMJE Conflict of Interest form. • After the form is filled out, the disclosure statement will be generated in a text box within the form. • Copy the disclosure statement from the text box. • Paste the disclosure statement into the manuscript document under the header: Disclosure Statement. • Do not upload the completed form. Papers that do not include a Disclosure Statement will not be reviewed. Any changes made to the list of conflicts after the paper is accepted must be submitted in writing, signed by the appropriate authors (that is, the corresponding author and the author for whom the conflict exists), to the SLEEP editorial office. # Self-Archiving Policy For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving Policy page. ## Reuse of Oxford University Press Material For more information regarding the reuse of Oxford University Press material please visit here. ## Third-Party Copyright In order to reproduce any third party material, including tables, figures, or images, in an article authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder and be compliant with any requirements the copyright holder may have pertaining to this reuse. When seeking to reproduce any kind of third party material authors should request the following: • non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal; • print and electronic rights, preferably for use in any form or medium; • the right to use the material for the life of the work; and • world-wide English-language rights. It is particularly important to clear permission for use in both the print and online versions of the journal, and we are not able to accept permissions which carry a time limit because we retain journal articles as part of our online journal archive. Further guidelines on clearing permissions can be found here # Open Access SLEEP authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative. For a charge, the paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After the manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process authors will be asked to indicate whether or not they wish to pay for open access. Authors who do not select the open access option, will have their paper published with standard subscription-based access and will not be charged. Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses. RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in SLEEP can use the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY) for their articles. All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licenses: • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC) • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license (CC BY-NC-ND) Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses. You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. Charges for the CC BY license: • Regular charge for SRS and AASM members:$2000
• Regular charge for non-society member: $3000 • Reduced Rate Developing country charge: £1,175 / €1,525 /$1,875
• Free Developing country charge*: £0 / €0 / $0 Charges for the CC BY-NC and CC BY-NC-ND licenses: • Regular charge for members and non-society members:$3,500
• Reduced Rate Developing country charge*: £1,000 / €1,300 / $1,600 • Free Developing country charge*: £0 / €0 /$0

Please note that these charges are in addition to the SLEEP submission charge.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

If you will be publishing your paper under an Open Access license but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:

Title of content

Author, Original publication, year of original publication, by permission of [rights holder]

# Manuscript Format

Pages should be numbered.

Manuscripts should be structured using the following components:

## Reviewer Information Page

• Number of tables
• Number of figures
• Abstract word count
• Statement of Significance word count
• Word count

## Title Page

• Title and Subtitle (if applicable)
• Authors and Author affiliations (identify the institution where the work was performed)
• Corresponding author's full address and Corresponding author's current Email

## Abstract

Each original manuscript and review article must be preceded by an abstract. Abstracts are not required for letters to the editor and editorials.

The abstract is limited to 250 words. The components of this format are (start each on a new line): Study Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusions and Keywords. Conclusions should not simply restate results, but should address the significance and implications of the findings. Authors have the option of not using section headings and may submit a single paragraph, narrative abstract of 250 words maximum length. Abstracts should include as few abbreviations as possible.

Abstracts must be followed by no fewer than three but no more than ten keywords that reflect the content of your manuscript. For guidance consult the Medical Subject Headings - Annotated Alphabetic List, published each year by the National Library of Medicine.

Keywords must be followed by details of clinical trials (if applicable): Clinical Trial: name, URL, and registration

## Statement of Significance

The statement of significance will appear on the first page of the manuscript just below the abstract. The statement of significance should:

• Be no more than 120 words maximum
• NOT be repetitious with the abstract or the “In summary…” paragraph that is often placed at the end of the Discussion
• NOT contain references and should avoid numbers, description of methods, abbreviations, and acronyms unless necessary
• Provide a clear statement of the importance and novelty of the research, using language that can be understood by scientists or clinicians without special knowledge of the field
• Include a statement about critical remaining knowledge gaps and/or future directions of the work
• For basic science papers, include a reasonable statement about human disease relevance and/or translational implications
• The Statement of Significance will appear in the final paper, below the abstract

## Introduction

State the objective of the reported research, with reference to previous work.

## Methods

Describe methods in sufficient detail so that the work can be duplicated, or cite previous descriptions if they are readily available.

## Results

Describe results clearly, concisely, and in logical order. When possible give the range, standard deviation, or standard error of the mean, and statistical significance of differences between numerical values.

## Discussion

Interpret the results and relate them to previous work in the field. Include a paragraph near the end of the discussion that briefly lists the limitations of the study.

## Acknowledgments

The minimum compatible with the requirements of courtesy should be provided.

## Disclosure Statement

As described in Conflict of Interest above, this may be generated from the Conflict of Interest form on the ICMJE website: http://www.icmje.org/conflicts-of-interest/ for each author.

# Figures and Tables

## Figure Guidelines

Submitted figures that do not meet journal guidelines may result in delays to the publication of a manuscript. The SRS reserves the right to modify figures in order to meet journal guidelines. Include the number of figures on the title page of the manuscript submission.

Figures must be a useful visualization of data that could not otherwise be accomplished in a few lines of text.

The following graphics can be submitted as figures: charts, graphs, illustrations, and photographs.

Figures must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript. Figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3). Include the figure number in the figure’s filename.

Each figure must have a corresponding short title and caption included in the manuscript text.

All figures must make economical use of space. Large areas of white space are not acceptable (e.g., axes of graphs extending beyond the relevant points needed to display data).

The resolution of all figures must be a minimum of 300 dpi and figures must be submitted in their final size.

Figures must be submitted as .tif, .eps, or .pdf files. Figured embedded as images in a Word document are not acceptable for publication. PowerPoint files are not acceptable for publication. Charts and graphs that are built in a Word document or an Excel spreadsheet can be submitted as a Word .doc file or an Excel .xls file provided that a .pdf version accompany these files.

Each figure must be self-contained and comprehensible without referring to the manuscript. This includes the following requirements:

All symbols used in a figure must be defined for that figure (e.g, *, †). If a symbol is used in multiple figures, the definition of the symbol must also be repeated for every figure in which it appears. Symbols may be defined in a key within the figure or in the figure caption.

All abbreviations used in a figure (including those used in the figure’s title and caption) must be defined in the figure caption. This includes abbreviations defined in the manuscript. If the same abbreviation is repeated in multiple figures, the definition of that abbreviation must be repeated for every figure in which it appears. Only the most widely recognized abbreviations are the exception to this rule.

Type within figures must be consistent and legible when viewing the figure at its final size. The use of italic and bold styling should only be used when meaningful (e.g., differentiating between gene and protein names).

Charts and graphs must be two-dimensional unless the data require a third dimension.

Illustrations must be professionally drawn. Use color where appropriate. There is no charge for color.

Visual representation of animal subjects through the use of illustrations is preferred to photographs.

Photographs of subjects in which the individual is identifiable require a signed model release.

Authors are responsible for obtaining full permission to publish figures for which they do not hold the copyright. Proof of this permission is required prior to publication. If a figure has been previously published, a citation to the original publication and/or necessary attribution should be included in the figure caption as required by the copyright holder of the figure.

The use of clip art and stock photography is not allowed.

Table Guidelines

Submitted tables that do not meet journal guidelines may result in delays in publication. The journal reserves the right to modify tables in order to meet journal guidelines. Include the number of tables on the title page of the manuscript submission.

Tables must not duplicate data reported in the manuscript text or figures.

All tables must be created using the table function in Microsoft Word. Tables created in PowerPoint are not acceptable. Tables submitted as images are not acceptable.

Tables must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript.

Each table must have a corresponding short title above the table and caption below.

Authors are responsible for obtaining full permission to publish tables that have been previously published. Permission from the original publisher must be obtained and all necessary attribution should be included in the table’s caption.

Each table must be self-contained and comprehensible without referring to the manuscript. This includes the following requirements:

All symbols used in a table must be defined for that table (e.g., *, †). If a symbol is used in multiple tables, the definition of the symbol must also be repeated for every table in which it appears. Symbols should be defined in the table caption.

All abbreviations used in a table (including those used in the table title and caption) must be defined in the table’s caption. This includes abbreviations defined in the manuscript. If the same abbreviation is repeated in multiple tables, the definition of that abbreviation must be repeated for every table in which it appears. Only the most widely recognized abbreviations are the exception to this rule.

Footnotes are acceptable in tables. Footnotes should clearly be marked with superscript lowercase letters or symbols in the table. Do not use numbers (Arabic or Roman numeral) to indicate a footnote. All footnotes should be fully expanded in the table caption.

## Supplemental Materials

Supplemental material can provide additional detail on study methods, or on data that are informative, but not critical to the aims of the study. It is the author’s responsibility to make sure that the main manuscript can be read and understood without reference to supplemental materials. While discouraging indiscriminate use of supplemental materials, some forms of data (videos and large datasets, explanations of data sources, details of computational algorithms) may be appropriately presented as supplemental material. Supplemental material must be directly relevant to the conclusions offered in the main text but non-essential for reader understanding. Information that is essential to understanding the article must not be provided as supplemental material.

Reviewers are instructed to review supplemental materials of reasonable length (e.g. typical figures and tables) at the same level as the content of the main manuscript. Reviewers cannot reasonably be expected to review large supplemental data formats (e.g., large databases). Reviewers are also asked to comment on the appropriateness of supplemental materials, including if they contain essential information that belongs in the main article and if they sufficiently enhance the presentation of the main article to justify inclusion. Readers are expected to communicate directly with the corresponding author about supplemental material, not with the Editor. No comments or critiques of supplemental material will be considered for publication in SLEEP.

## Supplemental Material Guidelines

Please note that supplemental materials, including data sets, are not copyedited by SLEEP, and therefore authors must ensure that all files are checked carefully before submission and that the style of figures and tables conforms to the recommendations in the manuscript submission guidelines. All supplemental material must be succinct, organized carefully, and labeled appropriately. References in the text, captions and file names on uploaded files should match and be numbered sequentially using the prefix “S” to differentiate them from figures and tables presented in the main manuscript, for example: Figure S1, Table S1, Video S1, Video caption S1, Data set S1 etc.

Video Guidelines

Videos should be provided in .mp4 format. Videos submitted in alternate formats will be converted. Please provide a separate Microsoft Word file containing a caption or description of the videos. Please keep the description as short as possible and ensure that the description is necessary for the comprehension of the videos. Releases signed by persons who appear in any video must be provided with the submission of videos. SLEEP will not publish any video where persons can be identified without suitable permission forms on file.

Dataset Guidelines

Large datasets should only be submitted when necessary to support a manuscript’s conclusions, when solicited by SLEEP’s Editors/Reviewers, or if the authors feel that the publication of the dataset is critical to advancing research in the field. These should be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet, which will be made available for download. Authors have the option of providing a link to large data sets and hosting them on their own website.

## Citations within Text/ Reference List

SLEEP uses the American Medical Association 10th Edition style guide. There is no limit on the number of references for original articles. The reference section should be included starting on a separate page at the end of the text, following the style of the sample formats given below. A standard bibliography program such as EndNote or Reference Manager may be used. We cannot guarantee that citation/reference software will match all SLEEP author guidelines. Accuracy of reference data is the responsibility of the author. Failure to initially comply with SLEEP’s style requirements may result in manuscripts returned to authors for correction and may potentially delay publication.

Citations within Text

Each reference should be cited in the text, tables, or figures in consecutive numerical order by means of superscripted Arabic numerals placed outside periods and commas and inside colons and semicolons. When three or more references are cited at one place in the manuscript, a hyphen should be used to join the first and last numbers of a series; commas should be used without spaces to separate other parts of a multiple-reference citation.

Sample citations within the body of a paper

According to our previous work,1,3-8,19

The patients were studied as follows3,4:

Reference List

Provide all authors' names when fewer than seven; when seven or more, list the first three and add et al. Provide article titles and journal name. For abbreviations of journal names, refer to “List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus.” Provide year, volume, issue and inclusive pages. Provide DOIs and URLs when appropriate.

Sample references:

Journal Article:

1. Rainier S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmal dystonic choreathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004; 61 (7): 1025–1029.
2.   Book:

3. Modlin J, Jenkins P,. Decision Analysis in Planning for a Polio Outbreak in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Pediatric Academic Societies; 2004.
4.  Chapter of a book:

5. Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockly P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004: 585v606.
6.   Website:

7. Aggleton JP. Understanding anterograde amnesia: disconnections and hidden lesions. Q J Exp Psychol. 2008;61(10):1441-1471. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00545-3. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pbh&AN=34168185&site=ehost-live Accessed March 18, 2010.
8.   Manuscript Accepted for Publication:

9. Brown JE. The relation between citations and references. J Med Style. In press.
10.   Presentation (Not Published):

11. Thomas ABC, Sato T, Ferdinand AB, et al. AMA writing style for authors and students. Paper presented at: 25th Annual Meeting of the Association for Scholarly Styles; April 2005; London, England.

# Details of Style

## Sleep Medicine Terminology

Follow the terminology usage recommendations in the AASM Style Guide for Sleep Medicine Terminology.

## Drug Names

Use generic names in referring to drugs; trade names may be given in parentheses after the first mention, but the generic name should be used thereafter.

## Abbreviations

Please note that journal style for the abbreviation of standard deviation is SD. Please do not use SD as an abbreviation for sleep deprivation.

Please provide on a separate page all abbreviations used with their full definition. Each should be expanded at first mention in the text and listed parenthetically after expansion.

## Review Process

The Editor-in-Chief and/or Associate Editors first determine if a submitted manuscript is suitable for review and publication. Manuscripts selected are then sent for peer-review to reviewers who are selected based on their expertise related to the particular manuscript. After reviews are submitted, a recommendation of accept, reject or revise (for further consideration) is made by the Associate Editor to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes the final decision.

Manuscripts are reviewed with due respect for the author's confidentiality. At the same time, reviewers also have rights to confidentiality, which are respected by the editors. The editors ensure both the authors and the reviewers that the manuscripts sent for review are privileged communications and are the private property of the author.

When submitting a manuscript for consideration for publication, authors may suggest the names of potential reviewers to invite and/or exclude.

# Resubmissions

If a manuscript is returned to the author(s) for revisions, all resubmissions must follow the Instructions for Submitting a Manuscript and include the following:

Both a clean copy and a redlined copy of the revised submission.

You must also upload a letter (Corresponding Author’s Rebuttal) responding to each of the points made by the reviewers.

The deadline for submission of a revised manuscript needing major revisions is two months from the date of the notice. For Minor revisions, the deadline for resubmission is one month. There is no guarantee that a revised manuscript will be accepted for publication.

# Plagiarism Review

The editorial office carefully monitors papers submitted to SLEEP for plagiarism. We define plagiarism to include: literal copying - reproducing a work word for word, in whole or in part, without permission and acknowledgment of the original source; paraphrasing - reproducing someone else's ideas while not copying word for word, without permission and acknowledgment of the original source; substantial copying - copying images, or data from other sources; text-recycling - reusing substantial amounts of text from your own previous publications.

Any text contained in a manuscript that is directly copied from another source must be placed within quotation marks and the original source must be properly cited. If a paper captures the essence of a previously published work, that work should be cited. If any paraphrasing is included, the source must be properly referenced and the meaning intended by the source must not be changed. All works that may have inspired a study’s design or manuscript structure must be properly cited.

If plagiarism is detected during any part of the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. For published papers where plagiarism is detected, we reserve the right to issue a correction or retract the paper, whichever is deemed appropriate. We reserve the right to inform authors' institutions about plagiarism detected either before or after publication.

All accepted manuscripts are subject to manuscript editing for conciseness, clarity, grammar, spelling and SLEEP style. After acceptance all manuscripts will be copyedited. The copyedited version will be sent to the corresponding author for review and approval and returned to the Managing Editor. Once the manuscript is scheduled for publication, the corresponding author will be notified as to the assignment of the manuscript to an issue and page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. These proofs will be emailed as a PDF file and authors will be expected to return their corrections or approval of these proofs within the timeframe given in the email. It is the authors’ responsibility to keep their account in ScholarOne current and to notify the Journal Editorial Office (sleep@oup.com) of any changes in contact information after a paper has been accepted.

# Accepted Papers

In order to provide readers with access to new scientific developments as early as possible, all manuscripts accepted by the Editor will be available online prior to being published. Accepted manuscripts are posted as received - without editing or formatting by the publisher. The layout and appearance of each article will change when published in SLEEP.

All papers appearing in SLEEP, including online Accepted Papers, are copyrighted by the Sleep Research Society. No paper in whole or in part may be used in any form without written permission from the Sleep Research Society

Advance Access articles are published online soon after they have been accepted for publication, in advance of their appearance in a journal issue. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.

Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset and any corrections included. This is before they are paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Once an article appears in an issue, both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

# Disclaimer

Statements and opinions expressed in the articles and communications herein are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the editors, the publisher, or the Sleep Research Society (SRS), and the editors, the publisher, and SRS disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials. The editors, the publisher, and SRS do not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in this publication, nor do they guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of such product or service.

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