In 2005–2006, a large outbreak of Chikungunya (CHIK) fever occurred on the western Indian Ocean Islands. In Mayotte, concurrent with an enhanced passive case notification system, we carried out two surveys. A seroprevalence survey designed to document recent CHIK infection was conducted on serum samples collected from pregnant women in October 2005 (n = 316) and in March–April 2006 (n = 629). A cross-sectional clinical community survey carried out from 2 to 10 May 2006 among 2235 individuals was designed to determine the cumulative incidence of presumptive CHIK fever cases. The seroprevalence of recent infection among pregnant women was 1.6% in October 2005 and rose to 26% in April 2006. The clinical community survey showed that nearly 26% of respondents had experienced presumptive CHIK fever between January and May 2006. Extrapolated to the overall population of Mayotte, these figures lead to an estimated attack rate of 249.5 cases per 1000 population as of early May 2006. Nine patients with the maternofetal form and six subjects with the severe form were recorded. This first emergence of CHIK fever in Mayotte lead to a very large outbreak. Efforts to strengthen surveillance and prevention of arbovirus infection are needed at country and regional levels.