Mr Kanthawala maintains that, since the trade description of Bharat ASNA Antivenom C (‘Snake Venom Antiserum African’ - ASNA-C) ‘clearly mentions the use of antivenom against E. carinatus snake bite’, Visser et al.1 ‘have used the wrong product for treating the patients’ envenomed by Echis ocellatus in Ghana. However, in the list of immunising venoms used to produce ASNA-C (his Table 1), the name ‘Echis carinatus’ is sandwiched between those of 10 purely African species (albeit wrongly spelled) while the label of this antivenom clearly targets its use for Africa. ‘Echis carinatus’ originally included the saw-scaled or carpet vipers of Africa before separate species such as E. ocellatus, E. leucogaster and E. pyramidum were distinguished.2 In view of this ambiguity, it was surely misleading and irresponsible of Bharat to market ASNA-C in countries where E. ocellatus...

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