In a survey of Leishmania infections of phlebotomine sandflies caught in central and south Italy in 1986, zymodeme MON-1 (Montpellier 1) of Leishmania infantum was isolated from Phlebotomus perniciosus and L. tarentolae [= Trypanosoma platydactyli?] was isolated from Sergentomyia minuta, providing for mainland Italy the first direct proof of these long-suspected parasite-vector associations. The roles of P. perfiliewi and P. perniciosus in the transmission of Leishmania spp. in Italy are discussed.

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