Using cross‐country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long‐term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital. In addition, growth is indirectly affected through the impact of gender inequality on investment and population growth. Some 0.4–0.9 percentage points of differences in annual per capita growth rates between East Asia and Sub‐Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East can be accounted for by differences in gender gaps in education between these regions.

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