The European Court of Justice's (ECJ's) judgments in Moped Trailers1 and in Mickelsson & Roos2 concern a type of national measure that the Court had so far had few opportunities to assess under Article 34 TFEU:3 restrictions on the use that consumers may make of the products subject to these measures.4 Such restrictions leave consumers free to buy the products in question, and to make any remaining lawful uses of them. Nevertheless, if no use remains permissible, there is little point in the consumer spending money on something so literally ‘useless’. If few uses remain, it may not be worth the expenditure. Such rules thus work as ‘purchasing deterrents’ (for want of a better expression). With demand subsiding, supply will soon dry up, too. Trade between Member States would in this situation be affected by measures addressed not, as usually, to...

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